Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11--14

Anthropometry measurements and nutritional status of children attending anganwadis in rural areas


Ansi Patel, Hrutu Gada, Meera Menon, Adithya Panicker, Nikita Patil, Sumer Bora 
 Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Sawangi (M), Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ansi Patel
Nehru ward, Hanuman chowk, Civil Lines, Gondia - 441601, Maharashtra
India

Abstract

Background: The study is regarding the effectiveness of ICDS scheme in India which is for the benefits of children's nutrition and health. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the assessment of the nutritional status of children attending Anganwadi in Seloo and Deoli. Objective: The objective is to assess the nutritional status of children according to American Association for Health Education in Anganwadi at the village Seloo and Deoli of Wardha district. Materials and Methods: All the students of Seloo and Deoli taken as subject for anthropometric measurements to asses nutritional status. Study type is cross sectional study. Results: In Seloo, almost 56.6% of children are underweight. In Deoli, almost 50% of children are underweight. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of undernutrition in the study population was assessed, and severe undernutrition was found to be present.



How to cite this article:
Patel A, Gada H, Menon M, Panicker A, Patil N, Bora S. Anthropometry measurements and nutritional status of children attending anganwadis in rural areas.J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2021;16:11-14


How to cite this URL:
Patel A, Gada H, Menon M, Panicker A, Patil N, Bora S. Anthropometry measurements and nutritional status of children attending anganwadis in rural areas. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 21 ];16:11-14
Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2021/16/1/11/322641


Full Text



 Introduction



Nutrition may be defined as the science of food and its relationship to health. It is concerned primarily with the part played by nutrients in body growth, development, and maintenance. Good nutrition means “maintaining a nutritional status that enables us to grow well and enjoy good health.”

Over the past 50 years, many advances have been made in the knowledge of nutrition and in the practical application of that knowledge. Specific nutritional disease has been identified such as protein–energy malnutrition (PEM), endemic goiter, nutritional anemia, nutritional blindness, and diarrheal diseases. The associations of nutrition with infection, immunity, fertility, maternal and child health, and family health have engaged scientific attention.

During recent years, the science of nutrition has moved out of the laboratory and linked itself to epidemiology. This association has given birth to newer concepts which are broadly known as health for all – It is the basis for the WHO's primary health care strategy to promote health, human dignity, and enhanced quality of life. The promotion of proper nutrition is one of the eight elements of primary health care.

”Health for All” has therefore been WHO's guiding visions for more than seven decades and also the inspiration behind the current organization-wide drive to support countries in moving towards.

 Universal Health Coverage: Everyone and Everywhere (WHO Theme 2018)



Significance of anthropometry

Primary measures of past or current nutritional status in childrenDistinguish between stunting and wastingIdentify PEM and obesityMonitor changes after nutrition interventionClinical settings identify and hospital patients with Camurati-Engelmann Disease (CED) or over nutritionPublic health screening.

Anthropometric measurements

The age-dependent factors include weight, height, head circumference, and chest circumference. The age-independent factors include mid-arm circumference (1–5 years), weight for height, and skinfold thickness.

The most important scheme in the field of child welfare is Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS). The population norms for setting up of Anganwadi Centers (AWC) and mini-AWC have been revised to cover all habitations by SC/ST/minorities.

India has unacceptably high levels of child undernutrition with 38.4% of children stunted and 21% of children wasted (National Family Health Survey 4), despite strong constitutional, legislative policy, plan and program commitments evident by the creation of ICDS in 1975 and National Coverage of the Mid-Day Meal Scheme in 1995. In fact, a child under 5 years is almost twice as likely to be chronically underweight in India as in sub-Saharan Africa.

We are still far from a world without malnutrition. While the 2018 edition of the joint malnutrition estimates shows that stunting prevalence has been declining for 18 years, nearly one in 4–151 million children under 5 years were stunted in 2017 and 52 million suffered from wasting. Meanwhile, the number of overweight children worldwide has remained stagnant for more than a decade.

Aim

The aim of this study is to determine the assessment of the nutritional status of children attending Anganwadi in Seloo and Deoli.

Objectives

The objective is to assess the nutritional status of children according to American Association for Health Education in Anganwadi at the village Seloo and Deoli of Wardha district.

Methodology

Study duration – 4 monthsStudy type – Cross-sectional studySample size – All students of Deoli and SelooInclusion criteria – All students presentExclusion criteria – Those who are absent and not willing to give consentData collection tool – Anthropometric measurementsData collection method

Weight: Weighing scaleHeight: Measuring scaleChest circumference, head circumference, middle-upper arm circumference: Measuring tape.

Data analysis – Done using MS Excel.

Ethical clearance

The Institutional Ethics Committee of DMIMSDU has approved the Research work proposed to be carried out at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi(M), Wardha. Date: 11th Jan 2017 with Reference no DMIMS(DU)/IEC/2017-18/140.

 Results and Observation



Seloo profile

[Table 1] depicts the age-wise distribution of children attending anganwadi in Seloo, with a maximum percentage of students is from the age group of 4 years with 33.3% and the least is from the age group of 2 year old of age with 3.3% in a total of 30 students.{Table 1}

[Table 2] depicts the sex-wise distribution of children attending Anganwadi in Seloo, and there is an equal distribution among male and female children attending this Anganwadi. {Table 2}

[Table 3] depicts a high prevalence of malnourished children are underweight (56.6%), followed by Moderately acute malnourished (13.3%) and lastly, Severely acute malnourished (3.3%) in seloo anganwadi. The percentage of children coming under normal PEM grade consists only about 26.6%.{Table 3}

Deoli profile

[Table 4] depicts the age-wise distribution of children attending Deoli Anganwadi. As per this analysis, the maximum number of children attending Anganwadi belongs to the age group of 3 years, and the least belongs to the age group of 6 years.{Table 4}

[Table 5] depicts the sex-wise distribution of children attending Anganwadi in Deoli; this table shows a male predomination (53.3%).{Table 5}

[Table 6] shows a high prevalence of underweight children attending Deoli anganwadi; almost 50% of children are underweight and about 16.6% of children are moderately acute malnourished. The percentage of children coming under normal PEM grade consists only about 33.4%.{Table 6}

 Discussion



India stands at a very vulnerable position, with one of the highest prevalence of undernutrition in the world in spite of the improvement in food availability and poverty alleviation. In addition to it, numerous determinants play a role in its causation. The interplay of these determinants and their complementary effect makes it difficult to isolate one key factor in causing undernutrition.

The ICDS scheme has an empirical role in combating undernutrition whose services include supplementary nutrition, health checkups, and growth monitoring. However, even after 43 years of its initiation, the problem of undernutrition still persists (As shown in [Figure 1]) and the decrease in the prevalence is relatively low. It has given more attention to coverage rather than the quality of care. It has neglected aspect of educating parents on improving nutrition through proper childcare and feeding behavior within the family budget but focused more on food distribution. Even when the ICDS coverage is as high as 90%, the utilization is limited to 28% among under 6 children. In addition to this, inadequate skills of the staff, lack of logistics, and poor supervision have added to the problem.{Figure 1}

Dealing with this requires a holistic approach due to the complex interrelation of factors in causation of PEM, which has continued to haunt India as a silent crisis.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]

 Conclusion



After conducting a survey of the children attending the Anganwadi at Deoli and Seloo center, we thereby come to a conclusion:

The maximum number of children attending anganwadis is between the age group of 3 and 5 years.

At Seloo – between 4 and 5 yearsAt Deoli – between 3 and 4 years.

There is maximum ~57% prevalence of underweight children in Seloo followed by 50% in Deoli, according to the WHO classification of PEM.

The overall prevalence of undernutrition in the study population was assessed, and severe undernutrition was found to be present. Malnutrition continues to be a major problem in children below 6 years of age. Although the ICDS scheme is taking measures to combat this problem, India's progression reducing child malnutrition has been slow. However, continuous monitoring of anganwadis could identify underlying factors of malnutrition, thus helping in the planning of preventive strategies.

Summary

Nutrition may be defined as the science of food and its relationship to health. It is concerned primarily with the part played by nutrients in body growth, development, and maintenance. Good nutrition means “maintaining a nutritional status that enables us to grow well and enjoy good health. India stands at a very vulnerable position, with one of the highest prevalence of undernutrition in the world in spite of improvement in food availability and poverty alleviation. In addition to it, numerous determinants play a role in its causation. The interplay of these determinants and their complementary effect makes it difficult to isolate one key factor in causing undernutrition. We have analyzed the data from different Anganwadis in Seloo and Deoli of children between the age of 0–5 years and have come to a conclusion that according to the WHO criteria of PEM almost 57% children are undernourished in Seloo and almost 50% in Deoli. Although the ICDS scheme is taking measures to combat this problem, India's progression reducing child malnutrition has been slow. However, continuous monitoring of Anganwadis could identify the underlying factors of malnutrition, thus helping in the planning of preventive strategies.

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank the department of community medicine for providing us with the golden opportunity to conduct the project on the topic anthropometry measurements and nutritional status of children attending anganwadis in rural areas and also helping us to conduct the survey in the anganwadis.

We also want to thank our guide Dr. Nikhil Dhande for his support, help, and guidance without which our project would have been incomplete. We also would like to thanks our colleagues for their help and support.

Finally, we thank our Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (m), for always encouraging us to do extracurricular activities that enhance our learning process during the period of internship.

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