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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 975-983

Treating periodontal disease for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes: Overview of systematic reviews

1 Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; PhD Scholar, Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ghousia Sayeed
Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_438_22

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To study systematic studies and analyze how treating periodontal disease might help to avoid unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. One of the most prevalent oral conditions affecting people is periodontitis. It has been observed that around thirty percent of the people in some populations. Periodontitis is found in 5–20% of the pregnant woman. It has been found that the management of periodontitis is safe in pregnancy through scaling and root planning. Preterm delivery and periodontal disease now have a clear link, according to current research. This finding has garnered significant interest of the clinicians and researchers. Five systematic reviews were judged to have excellent methodological quality (bias probability being little), whereas the remaining four received small ratings (immense or indistinct bias risk). Low-quality research supported the assumption that treating periodontal disease had a favorable impact, whereas studies with the best quality provided unambiguous evidence that no such benefit existed. Consistently inconsistent results from low- and best-quality trials were obtained. In high-quality studies, it was observed that the overall rate of preterm delivery periodontal disease treatment significantly lowered the (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.95–1.40; P = 0.15). In addition, rate of low birth weight infants even after the therapeutics of periodontal disease did not lessen (odds ratio 1.07, 0.85–1.36; P = 0.55), spontaneous abortions/stillbirths (0.79, 0.51–1.22; P = 0.28), or on the whole poor pregnancy outcomes (37 weeks considered as preterm births and/or unprompted abortions/stillbirths) (1.09, 0.91–1.30; P = 0.34). The use of treatment modalities for periodontal disease and other medical procedures can lessen preterm labor. However, treating periodontal disease alone cannot be considered a successful tactic to reduce the likelihood of preterm delivery even if it is not associated with any other medicinal course.

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