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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 762-765

Computed tomography evaluation of temporal bone fracture and hearing loss: A narrative review with systematic analysis

1 Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prerna Anup Patwa
Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha - 442 001, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_415_21

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In the modern world, the most common cause of head trauma causing temporal bone fracture in adults is road traffic accidents with high impact force. Hearing loss is one of the most common complaints after head trauma involving temporal bone fracture. Because of other life-threatening conditions associated with road traffic accidents, fractures of temporal bone is often overlooked. If these fractures are detected early, there complications can be avoided with conservative or surgical intervention. In this research following databases were used to search for published as well as unpublished studies over the period 2000–2021 in the English language: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. The terms used to generate a search were as follows: Temporal bone fracture and hearing loss. Those studies which did not fulfil the inclusion criteria were removed. Case reports, documentaries, and duplicate data were excluded. Most common cause of injury leading to temporal bone fracture was road traffic accident. Majority of cases were males belonging to the age group of 31–40 years and average age was 36 years. According to traditional classification, majority had longitudinal fracture followed by transverse fracture. According to newer classification, otic capsule sparing was more common in comparison to otic capsule involvement. The conductive type of hearing loss was more common and it was found associated with longitudinal fracture while sensorineural type of hearing loss was associated with transverse type of fracture. The conductive type of hearing loss was usually common in otic capsule sparing while sensorineural type of hearing loss is associated with otic capsule involvement. Otic capsule sparing is mostly seen in longitudinal fracture and transverse fracture involves otic capsule involvement. Head trauma due to fast moving vehicles is the most common cause of injury leading to temporal bone fracture. Because of complex structure of temporal bone identification of line of fracture is necessary which requires high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the head. High-resolution CT not only helps in knowing anatomy and types of fracture but also it helps in knowing sequelae of various types of fractures which helps in treating physician weather to go for conservative or surgical intervention.

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