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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 749-750

An innovative device for finding submerged cover screws of dental implants: “An implant cover screw detector!”


1 Department of Prosthodontics, Swargiya Dadasaheb Kalmegh Smruti Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, VSPM Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Periodontology, Swargiya Dadasaheb Kalmegh Smruti Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission24-Jun-2020
Date of Decision03-Nov-2020
Date of Acceptance26-Nov-2020
Date of Web Publication2-Nov-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Grishmi Niswade
Department of Periodontology, Swargiya Dadasaheb Kalmegh Smruti Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_231_20

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  Abstract 


This article describes the use of an electronic instrument to detect the presence of cover screws of dental implants submerged inside the mucous membrane during the second-stage surgical procedure for placement of gingival former. The instrument detects the presence of a metallic object at a certain distance from it and makes the clinical procedure of giving a precise incision without unnecessary trauma to the periodontal tissues. Clinical Implication: This device is of use when detecting the exact position of implant cover screw during the second-stage implant surgery. This makes the clinical procedure easy and saves the tissues from unnecessary trauma.

Keywords: Eddy current, implant cover screw, induction


How to cite this article:
Chandhok J, Chandhok D, Niswade G. An innovative device for finding submerged cover screws of dental implants: “An implant cover screw detector!”. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2022;17:749-50

How to cite this URL:
Chandhok J, Chandhok D, Niswade G. An innovative device for finding submerged cover screws of dental implants: “An implant cover screw detector!”. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 1];17:749-50. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2022/17/3/749/360196




  Introduction Top


In the recent years, there has been a growing use of dental implants as a remedy to loss of teeth and to restore the functions of esthetics and mastication in an edentulous patient. Dental implants were introduced in the 1970s with 10-year clinical results by Dr. Per-Ingnvar Branemark.[1] A dental implant is an alloplastic biomaterial made of titanium that is inserted into the jawbone surgically. Titanium is a material that is biocompatible and resistant to corrosion due to the native surface oxide layer. Parts of dental implant include the implant fixture, abutment, screw, and crown.[2]

We have designed an instrument to detect the presence of a metallic object at a certain distance from it. For the purpose of detection of implant cover screws, a device with a transistor circuit that produces alternating current (AC) which passes through a coil producing a magnetic field was designed. When the detector is brought close to a metallic object, a current is produced in the coil that produces a magnetic field of its own.


  Concept Behind Using the Device for Implants Top


The notion behind using this device is to identify cover screws of a dental implant submerged inside the mucosal tissue. In case of full-mouth case where multiple implants have been placed, it becomes challenging for the clinician to exactly identify the location and position of the implant for the second-stage surgery. Practice of an innovative device will make this step is easy, as then it will make an audible sound in the form of a beep exactly at the center of the implant screw, thus identifying the location of the implant.

Inclusion criteria

  • The device should be at a minimum distance of 2–2.5 mm from the soft tissue and exactly at the center of the implant to detect the exact location.


Exclusion criteria

  • It is electromagnetic, therefore contraindicated in patients with cardiac pacemaker
  • Other restorations in the mouth will be visible, and this device detects only a submerged implant screw
  • When two adjacent implants have to be detected, the device beeps only when it is placed exactly over the screw of one implant. Therefore, two adjacent implants do not create a problem in working of the instrument.



  Principle and Components of the Device Top


The operation of this device is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, i.e., when electric current passes through a coil, a magnetic field is produced around it.

The electronic device makes the use of a transistor circuit. It works as an oscillator with a medium band frequency which produces AC that passes through a coil producing a magnetic field. Another coil is attached to the circuit that measures the magnetic field produced and senses the presence of a metallic object, as seen in [Figure 1]. The circuit consists of a transistor having series capacitor in parallel with the inductor. First, the capacitors get charged and then transfer their energy to the inductor which again gives it back to the capacitor. This process repeats itself and makes oscillations, the frequency of which can be altered. When a metallic object is at a certain distance from this circuit, it activates the proximity sensor which makes an audible sound as the oscillator then fails to maintain the frequency of the circuit.
Figure 1: Circuit diagram of the device

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Components of the device include resistor, capacitor, transistor, diode, detector coil, power supply, and buzzer, as seen in [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Device

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  Discussion Top


The use of this device will make the detection of submerged implants easier for the clinician. There are other methods for detection of the location of dental implant. Soylu et al. 2018 conducted a study to evaluate the marking potential of tattoo ink to determine the location of submerged implants. They concluded that it is an inexpensive, easy, healthy, and practical way to identify the location of submerged implants.[3] Culjat et al. conducted a study to develop and demonstrate proof of concept of a customized ultrasound imaging system in locating and measuring the depth of implants submerged beneath the soft tissue in a porcine model which they found to be easy and accurate.[4] Certain commercially available products such as implant detector by Goldent is also used to detect submerged implants.


  Conclusion Top


The innovative device can thus be utilized in the field of dentistry to detect the exact location of dental implants that are submerged under the mucosa. The electronic device has not been used in the field of dentistry till date. Thus, it can help the implantologists to make the second-stage surgical procedure of a dental implant easier. Nevertheless, there is much scope for the improvement of the handling capacity of the device to make it more user-friendly.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Jokstad A, Braegger U, Brunski JB, Carr AB, Naert I, Wennerberg A. Quality of dental implants. Int Dent J 2003;53 Suppl 2:409-33.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Misch CE. Contemporary Implant Dentistry. 3rd ed. Mosby: South Asia Edition; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Soylu E, Gonen ZB, Alkan A. A new detection method for submerged implants: Oral tattoo. J Prosthodont 2018;27:361-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Culjat MO, Choi M, Singh RS, Gundfest WS, Brown ER, White SN. Ultrasound detection of submerged dental implants through soft tissue in a porcine model. J Prosthet Dent 2008;99:218-24.  Back to cited text no. 4
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

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