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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 637-640

To assess the knowledge and skill regarding oral rehydration solution preparation among the mother having under five children


Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission17-Feb-2020
Date of Decision28-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance27-Apr-2021
Date of Web Publication2-Nov-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mayuri Deshmukh
Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_48_20

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  Abstract 


Background: Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is the most significant development in the management of acute diarrheal disease in children. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and skill regarding ORS preparation among the mothers having under five children. Methodology: The cross-sectional study was done among 100 mothers of under five children from rural areas of Selsura, Wardha district. Results: The results showed that 15% of the mothers had the knowledge of taking a clean glass of water, 76% of the mothers knew to add a spoonful of sugar and to add a pinch of salt, 21% knew to stir it till all dissolves, 18% mothers tasted the solution, and 2% replaced the caps of salt and sugar bottle.

Keywords: Knowledge, mothers, oral rehydration solution


How to cite this article:
Deshmukh M, Kalode S, Jaiswal A, Chiddarwar V, Nidhishree R. To assess the knowledge and skill regarding oral rehydration solution preparation among the mother having under five children. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2022;17:637-40

How to cite this URL:
Deshmukh M, Kalode S, Jaiswal A, Chiddarwar V, Nidhishree R. To assess the knowledge and skill regarding oral rehydration solution preparation among the mother having under five children. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 1];17:637-40. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2022/17/3/637/360227




  Introduction Top


Diarrheal disease, being the leading cause of childhood diseases and death in developing countries, is also an important cause of nutrition deficiency.[1]

Diarrhea is an important pediatric problem in our country. In the first 2 years of life, about 80% of deaths occur due to diarrhea. Loss of fluid and electrolyte in diarrheal stools leads to acute dehydration which in turn is the main cause of death.[2]

Many diarrheal deaths are caused by dehydration. The major cause of death among children under the age of five is diarrhea.[3] Diarrhea-affected children frequently suffer from malnutrition and growth and development. Dehydration caused by diarrheal disease accounts for 6 lakhs deaths among children under five (UNICEF, 2001).

While working in village Selsura of Wardha district, we observed that 50% of mothers were unaware of during diarrheal disease.

Hence, we found that it is high time to make them aware of oral rehydration solution (ORS).

Objectives

The objectives are as follows:

  1. To assess the knowledge and skill of mothers having under five children regarding ORS[3]
  2. To associate the knowledge with the proper management during an acute attack of diarrhea.



  Methodology Top


The study was undertaken in the rural areas of Selsura, Wardha District. One hundred mothers of under five children were taken. It is a cross-sectional study.

The study was conducted from March 18, 2019, to May 17, 2019. The age, gender, age of mother, education of mother, income of family, diarrheal episodes, maternal knowledge about etiology, danger signs and home care practices, knowledge about ORS, and skill regarding preparation of ORS.

The statistical analysis was done using bar diagram and descriptive statistics. Analysis was done using the statistical software SPSS version 14.0 and Microsoft Excel (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3].
Figure 1: Percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to their educational status

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Figure 2: Percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to their occupation

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Figure 3: Percentage-wise distribution of children according to their age (years)

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E
  thical clearance Top


The Institutional Ethics Committee of DMIMSDU has approved the Research work proposed to be carried out at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi(M), Wardha. Date : 6th Dec 2019 with Reference no DMIMS(DU)/IEC/2019-20/235.


  Results Top


The present study was designed to assess the skill and knowledge on the preparation and understanding of ORS.

The collected data were tabulated, organized, analyzed, and interpreted using descriptive statistics and are presented at the end after the references section.

Analysis and interpretation of data are based on the objectives of the study.

The results are as follows:

  • Age of the mothers – 86% of the mothers were in the age group of 21–30 years and 14% were of age 31–40 years
  • Type of families – 80% of the mothers were from joint families and 20% were from nuclear families
  • Gender of the children – 56% of the children were boys and 44% of the children were girls
  • Education of the mothers – 44% of the mothers were educated till primary school, 20% till middle school, 30% till secondary school, 4% till higher secondary school, and only 2% of them were graduates
  • Occupation of the mothers – 8% of the mothers were doing self-business, 45% were housewives, 46% were farmers, and the rest were 1%
  • Monthly income of the mothers – 45% had no income, 46% were earning up to Rs. 1500, and 9% were earning Rs. 1501–3000
  • Age of the children – 60% were 1 years old, 26% were 2 years old, 17% were 3 years old, and 10% were 4 years old
  • Knowledge of the mothers about etiology of diarrhea – 78% of the mothers knew about contaminated food, 8% knew about soil eating, and 14% knew about water contamination
  • Knowledge of the mothers about danger signs of diarrhea – 32% of the mothers knew about symptoms of diarrhea) 65.63% of the mothers knew about dryness of buccal mucosa, 25% knew about cold extremities, and 9.38% knew about urine volume reduction.


[Table 1] shows the percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to action taken for acute diarrhea.
Table 1: Percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to the action taken for acute diarrhea

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It tells that 32% of the mothers gave self-medication, 28% of the mothers went to a private practitioner, and 40% went to a government hospital.

[Table 2] shows the percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to home care practices. It tells that 28% of the mothers gave adequate amount of food, water, and/or breastfeed, 34% of them reduced or stopped usual food, water, and breast feed, 30% of them gave ORS, and 8% gave salt, sugar solution.
Table 2: Percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to the home care practices

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[Table 3] shows the percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to the source of information regarding use of ORS. It tell that 65% obtained information from television, 26% from radio, 7% from Anganwadi workers, and 25% from other sources.
Table 3: Percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to the source of information regarding oral rehydration solution use

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[Table 4] shows the percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to steps observed while preparing homemade ORS.
Table 4: Percentage-wise distribution of mothers according to steps observed while preparing homemade oral rehydration solution

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It tell that 15% of the mothers had the knowledge of taking a clean glass of water, 76% of the mothers knew to add a spoonful of sugar and to add a pinch of salt, 21% knew to stir it till all dissolves, 18% mothers tasted the solution, and 2% replaced the caps of salt and sugar bottle.


  Discussion Top


To prevent severe dehydration appropriate preparation is more effective.[4] ORS users and literate women had better knowledge.[4] The present study shows that 50% of mothers did not have proper idea regarding if it needs to be stopped the child continues to vomit or have diarrhea.[4] Improper preparation and intake of ORS also contributes to disease and death.[4]

This proves that there is need for more awareness to increase the skill and knowledge in society considering the use.[4]

The maternal literacy level is related to the knowledge of oral rehydration therapy.[4] The mother's understanding of ORS and her knowledge and skills to prepare ORS has been persistently affected by her literacy.[4] Since most of the mothers got ORS from dispensary, they were not properly instructed about its time of use.[4] Studies indicate that the electronic mass media know about use of ORS to treat children suffering from diarrhea.[4]

Correct method of the preparation of ORS was also stated by 38.7% of the mothers and the quantity of ORS to be given during diarrhea was relied correctly by 4.6%.[4]

There were misunderstandings among the mothers that one needs a prescription of a doctor to obtain ORS.[4]

It does not have a good taste and no liquid has to be given during diarrhea, etc.[4] About 46% of the mothers had correct knowledge regarding contaminated food, 14% regarding water contamination, and remaining 8% about soil eating.

Regarding danger signs of diarrhea, 65.63% of mothers knew about dryness of buccal mucosa, 25% knew about cold extremities, and only 9.38% of them knew about urine volume reduction.

About action taken for acute diarrhea, 40% of mothers got ORS from government hospital, 32% prepared themselves, and 28% from private practitioner.

In relation of home care practices, 34% of the mothers reduced or stopped usual food, water and breastfeed, and 28% of them gave adequate amount of food, water, and/or breastfeed.

About steps observed while preparing home made ORS solution, 76% of the mothers added one tea spoonful of sugar and added one finger pinch of salt, 21% stir with a spoon till it contents are dissolved, 18% tasted the solution, 15% take clean glass and fill it with safe water 1 cm below the brim and remaining, and 2% replaced caps of salt and sugar bottle.

Summary

A cross-sectional study was used to collect the data 100 mothers to assess their knowledge and skill about ORS using questionnaire and marking system.[5] This study was undertaken in the Selsura village of Wardha district and collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and are presented in the form of tables and diagrams.

  • 86% of the mothers were in the age groups of 20–30 years
  • 80% belongs to joint families
  • 56% of the children were males
  • Maximum 44% of the mothers were educated up to primary
  • 46% of the mothers were doing farming job
  • 46% of the mothers had their income up to Rs. 1500
  • 60% of the mothers had only one child
  • 46% of the mothers had correct knowledge regarding contaminated food
  • 65.63% of mothers knew about dryness of buccal mucosa
  • 40% of mothers got ORS from government hospital
  • 34% of the mothers reduced or stopped usual food
  • Television (65%) and radio (26%) the main sources of information regarding ORS for the sample subjects[4]
  • 76% of the mothers added one tea spoonful of sugar and added one finger pinch of salt, 21% stir with a spoon till it contents are dissolved, 18% tasted the solution, 15% take clean glass and fill it with safe water 1 cm below the brim, and remaining 2% replaced caps of salt and sugar bottle.



  Conclusion Top


This study concluded that even though most of the mothers had knowledge about ORS and used it when needed, many knew about the importance and proper use of ORS.[4] Therefore, the health care workers should invest more time to focus on the need of ORS to prevent dehydration due to diarrhea.[4] They should also promote IEC activities to give knowledge regarding ORS and to explain the significance when it is needed.[4] These activities need to be regularized and continued so as to effectively prevent morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal disease.[4]

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Available from: http://www.a2zproject.org. [Last accessed on 2019 Apr 19].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Available from: http://rehydrate.org. [Last accessed on 2019 Apr 19].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Available from: http://ijpediatrics.com. [Last accessed on 2019 Apr 19].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Available from: http://medind.nic.in. [Last accessed on 2019 Apr 19].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Available from: http://gradworks.umi.com. [Last accessed on 2019 Apr 19]  Back to cited text no. 5
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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