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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 437-440

Evaluation of age of earning and starting of adverse habit in patients visiting to dental hospital


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of General Pathology, Jawaherlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission28-Aug-2019
Date of Decision14-Jan-2020
Date of Acceptance25-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication12-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vidya Lohe
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Sawangi (M), Wardha, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_129_19

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  Abstract 


Background: Habit of tobacco consumption is a known etiologic factor in the development of oral precancer and cancer. Exploring the age at which a person starts earning and starts adverse habit is vital. Materials and Methods: Healthy 120 controls, who were not having oral cancer, oral precancer and had no history of any major illness in the past were recruited for the study. The patient, were briefed about the study and a thorough case history was taken including demographic details and adverse habit. Results: Ninety-four (78.33%) were male and 26 (21.66%) were female. All the individuals studied were between the age group of 24–70 years and the mean age was 49.6 ± 10.3 years. Mean age of starting working was 18.37 ± 2.16 years, mean age of starting habit was 22.99 ± 3.86 years. Mean frequency and duration of habit was 5.00 ± 1.9958 was 25.75 ± 11.28 years, respectively. Data were subjected to Pearson correlation test, the r value was 0.252, P = 0.006 which showed the positive correlation between age of starting working and the mean age of starting habit. Conclusions: Evaluating various types of adverse habits in each and every patient visiting to dental clinic is of utmost importance. Exploring the habit of snuff/gul/gudakhu for cleaning teeth is important and the clinician should be alert and aware to this insidious aspect of tobacco use. The precancerous lesions and conditions are the preventable aspect of the tobacco disease spectrum. It provides an opportunity for early detection and thus helps in the prevention of malignant transformation.

Keywords: Adverse habit, oral cancer, oral precancer, tobacco


How to cite this article:
Lohe V, Kadu R. Evaluation of age of earning and starting of adverse habit in patients visiting to dental hospital. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2021;16:437-40

How to cite this URL:
Lohe V, Kadu R. Evaluation of age of earning and starting of adverse habit in patients visiting to dental hospital. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jun 30];16:437-40. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2021/16/3/437/339430




  Introduction Top


The excessive use of tobacco products has been associated with various lesions in the oral cavity.[1] The different ways in which tobacco is used lead to considerable variation in appearance, site, and frequency of the lesions associated with the tobacco habit.[2] The tobacco smoke contains a number of hydrocarbons that are powerful carcinogens. Tobacco smoke and unburned tobacco, used in chewing and snuff dipping, also contain several potent nitrosamines. These chemicals are all DNA toxic carcinogens that may play a key role in the initiation of promotion of specific types of cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma.[3] Smokeless tobacco is an addictive substance that produces many of harmful effects of smoking tobacco. It injures the oral tissues, produces severe systemic effects, and may cause oral cancer.[4]

The habit of tobacco consumption is a known etiologic factor for the development of oral precancerous diseases and head and neck cancer.[5] The age at which a person starts earning and age at which he/she starts adverse habit, its duration and daily frequency; all these factors have a role in initiation of oral precancer and cancer. Targeting this population for counseling may prove fertile in prevention of oral cancer.

Therefore, the present study, “Evaluation of age of earning and starting of adverse habit in patients visiting to Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital” was carried out.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, during August 2016–December 2017. A total of 120 healthy controls, who were not having oral cancer, oral precancer and who had no history of any major illness in the past were recruited for the study.

After obtaining the prior approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Deemed to be university, Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha, the present study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha.

The study individuals were recruited from those who came to the outpatient department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha for the checkup.

For this hospital-based, observational, prospective study, a total of 120 healthy controls were recruited in control group. All the patients were provided and explained a written informed consent in their vernacular language. Individuals signed the consent form before they were included in the study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly selected. After taking a written informed consent from the patient, they were briefed about the study and a thorough case history was taken including demographic data such as age, gender, education, occupation, income, and adverse habit. A complete clinical examination of the oral cavity was carried out under aseptic examination procedure using a sterile mouth mirror and probe under artificial light.


  Results Top


In the present study, the sex-wise distribution of individuals revealed that 94 (78.33%) were male and 26 (21.66%) were female. All the individuals studied were between the age group of 24 and 70 years and the mean age was 49.6 ± 10.3 years [Table 1].
Table 1: Age-wise distribution of 120 individuals

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The habit-wise distribution of 120 individuals in the present study revealed that, all the individuals had tobacco habit in one or the other forms habit-wise distribution is depicted in [Table 2] and [Graph 1].
Table 2: Habit-wise distribution of 120 individuals

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The mean age of starting working was 18.37 ± 2.16 years. The age of starting habit in 120 individuals showed that, 42 (35.00%) individuals started habit between 11 and 20 years and 75 (62.50%) individuals started habit between 21 and 30 years of age and 3 (02.50%) individuals started habit between 31 and 40 years. The mean age of starting habit was 22.99 ± 3.86 years. The mean frequency of habit in was 5.00 ± 1.9958 years. The mean duration of habit was 25.75 ± 11.28 years. The frequency and duration wise distribution is depicted in [Table 3] and [Table 4] and [Graph 2].
Table 3: Frequency of habit in 120 individuals

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Table 4: Distribution of subjects according to duration of adverse habit

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The correlation between mean age of staring working and mean age of starting habit in 120 individuals revealed that, the mean age of starting working in 120 individuals was 18.37 ± 2.16 and the mean age of starting habit in was 22.99 ± 3.86. The data obtained was subjected to Pearson correlation test and the r value was 0.252, P = 0.006 showing positive correlation between age of starting working the mean age of starting habit [Table 5] and [Graph 3].
Table 5: Correlation between mean age of staring working and mean age of starting habit

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The various reasons for starting adverse habit in 120 individuals revealed that, 39 (32.50%) individuals started habit to accompany their friends or co-workers, 35 (29.16%) as a part of culture, 14 (11.66%) to time pass/unoccupied, 16 (13.33%) to extend their hunger, 12 (10.00%) for motion related problems, and 04 (3.33%) to increase the capacity of working [Table 6].
Table 6: Reasons for starting adverse habit

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  Discussion Top


The oral mucosa is subject to numerous insults, some of which are a result of personal habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption can result in irreparable genetic injury. Whenever body fails to eliminate cells permanently altered by these mechanisms or can no longer adequately suppress their replication, oral squamous cell carcinoma develops. In the study of Lohe and Bhowate,[6] all the 100% of patients had tobacco habit in one or the other forms.

In the present study, 50 (41.66%) individuals were using snuff/gul/gudakhu for cleaning teeth. Exploring this type of habit for teeth cleaning is important because this type of habit of tobacco consumption can be missed during history taking. The clinician should be alert and aware to this insidious aspect of tobacco use.

The habit of tobacco consumption in smoked form such as bidi/cigarette smoking and smokeless forms like betel-nut chewing habit are the known predisposing factors for development of oral precancerous lesions and conditions and head and neck cancer. The precancerous lesions are altered epithelial lesions, which have an augmented possibility of progressing to oral squamous cell carcinoma develops. In the study of Lohe and Bhowate,[6] out of 120 oral squamous cell carcinoma develops patients, 32 (26.66%) also had oral precancerous lesions. This indicates that about 27% of patients with precancerous lesions might have got transferred into oral squamous cell carcinoma suggesting that identifying precancerous lesions is vital. In the present study, all the 120 (100%) individuals are at the risk of developing precancerous lesions one or the other time. Therefore, the evaluation of age of starting earning, age of starting adverse habit, duration, daily frequency of habit, and the reasons for starting habit became prudent.

In the present study, the age of starting habit showed that, 42 (35.00%) subjects started habit between 11 and 20 years and 75 (62.50%) individuals started habit between 21 and 30 years, 3 (02.50%) individuals started habit between 31 and 40 years. The mean age of starting habit was 22.99 ± 3.86 years. The mean frequency of habit in was 5.00 ± 1.9958 years. The mean duration of habit was 25.75 ± 11.28 years.

Age of starting adverse habit before 20 years and frequency 10 times/day increases the risk of oral cancer. A dose response relationship exists for number of quids chewed in a day and the risk persists even after quitting the habit.[7]

In this study, the mean age of starting working was 18.37 ± 2.16 and the mean age of starting habit was 22.99 ± 3.86. The Pearson correlation test showed that, the r value was 0.252, P = 0.006, showing a positive correlation between the mean age of starting working and the mean age of starting habit in controls.

A person gets habituated to adverse habits due to various reasons like in this study, 39 (32.50%) started habit to accompany their friends or co-workers, 35 (29.16%) as a part of culture, 14 (11.66%) to for time pass or they are nonoccupied, 16 (13.33%) to extend their hunger, 12 (10.00%) for motion-related problems, 04 (3.33%) to increase the capacity of working. In this situation, the age of starting working and ultimately earning is important to get access and money to buy the products and to continue the habit. This type of association probably was not explored in any of the previous studies.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15]


  Conclusions Top


Evaluating various types of adverse habits in each and every patient visiting to dental clinic is of utmost importance. Smoking, smoke-less tobacco in the form of tobacco quid, betel leaf quid, and betel nut quid keeping habits should be carefully discovered at the earliest and patients should be motivated to quit the adverse habit as early as possible. Exploring the habit of snuff/gul/gudakhu for cleaning teeth is important because this type of habit of tobacco use can be missed during history taking. The clinician should be alert and aware to this insidious aspect of tobacco use.

The role of tobacco has been established as an etiological factor for oral precancer and cancer.

The precancerous lesions and conditions are the preventable aspects of the tobacco disease spectrum. It provides an opportunity for early detection and thus helps in the prevention of malignant transformation.

The population at risk should be educated and motivated regarding prevention of oral cancer and additional care should be directed toward identifying and controlling oral precancer and cancer.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Lohe VK, Degwekar SS, Bhowate RR, Kadu RP, Dangore SB. Evaluation of correlation of serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and precancer and its association with tobacco abuse. J Oral Pathol Med 2010;39:141-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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3.
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Wood NK, Goaz PW. Differential Diagnosis of oral and Maxillofacial Lesions. 5th ed. India: Harcourt Brace and Company Asia Pte Ltd.,; 1998:587-90.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Tradati N, Grigolat R, Calabrese L, Costa L, Giugliano G, Morelli F, et al. Oral leukoplakias: To treat or not? Oral Oncol 1997;33:317-21.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Lohe VK, Bhowate RR. Association of socioeconomic risk factor with oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2016;11:243-246.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Dangore-Khasbage S, Bhowate RR. Evaluation of Risk of Liver Fibrosis in Areca Nut Habitual by Ultrasonography and Liver Enzyme Analysis-a Pragmatic Approach. Int J Clin Dent 2020;13:163-71.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Chhabra KG, Limsay S, Kulkarni R, Hake N, Nimbulkar G, Reche A. Proteomics and Oral Cancer: The Road Less Travelled. Eur J Molecular Clin Med 2020;7:1840-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Gadbail AR, Chaudhary M, Sarode SC, Gondivkar S, Tekade SA, Zade P, et al. Ki67, CD105, and α-SMA Expression Supports the Transformation Relevant Dysplastic Features in the Atrophic Epithelium of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. PLoS ONE 2018;13:1-12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200171. [Last accessed on 2019 Jan 12].  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Gondivkar SM, Bhowate RR, Gadbail AR, Gondivkar RS, Sarode SC, Sarode GS, et al. Impact of Oral Submucous Fibrosis on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: A Condition-Specific OHRQoL-OSF Instrument Analysis. Oral Dis 2018;24:1442-8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/odi.12921. [Last accessed on 2019 Jan 12].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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