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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 393-396

Upheaval of Nanoscience in Periodontics


1 Department of Periodontology, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Rural Dental College, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pedodontics, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Rural Dental College, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission06-Aug-2020
Date of Decision23-Nov-2020
Date of Acceptance01-Dec-2020
Date of Web Publication18-Oct-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. S Deshmukh Shruti
Department of Periodontology, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Rural Dental College and Hospital, Loni, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_293_20

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  Abstract 


Periodontitis is one of the most common diseases involving tooth and its supporting structures. Management of periodontitis is important for improvement of quality of life of the patient that ultimately has its impact on the overall health of an individual. Nanotechnology has evolved as a promising mode of treatment with upsurge of various treatment methodologies for the treatment of periodontitis. Nanotechnology has proven to be a reliable technology in dentistry as it provides different types of innovative nanomaterials which can be used in a variety of dental treatment options. A systematic search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar up to and including the year 2014, to identify relevant studies. All cross-reference lists of the selected studies were also screened. The inclusion criteria were articles in English or those having a detailed summary in English, published between 2000 and 2014. Review, case reports, abstracts, letters to editors, and editorials were excluded. In vivo studies were excluded from this systematic review. This paper will help the reader to understand nanoscience and the benefits and limitations of nanotechnology in periodontics by addressing its ethical, social, and health implications.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, nanotechnology, periodontitis


How to cite this article:
Gowri S P, Saurabh R J, Preeti P K, Shruti S D. Upheaval of Nanoscience in Periodontics. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2021;16:393-6

How to cite this URL:
Gowri S P, Saurabh R J, Preeti P K, Shruti S D. Upheaval of Nanoscience in Periodontics. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 4];16:393-6. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2021/16/2/393/328465




  Introduction Top


Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1–100 nm. “Nanotechnology” can be defined as the design, characterization, production, and application of structures, devices, and systems by controlled manipulation of size and shape at the nanometer scale (atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scale) that produces structures, devices, and systems with at least one novel/superior characteristic or property.[1] Nanotechnology is a wide amalgamation of different fields involving material science, engineering, chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, and physics.[2] The Greek word “dwarf” led to the invention of the term “nano.” Nanotechnology is a meaningful engineering technology today, which may help in making biomaterials, electronics, biomedical instruments, and consumer products by controlling the individual atoms and molecules.[3]

This newer technology is involved in the processing and synthesis of nanoparticles or nanomaterials.[4] Nanoscale is defined as smaller than 1/10th of a micrometer in at least one dimension, though this term is sometimes also used for materials smaller than 1 μm. At nanoscale, 1 nm is 1 billionth of a meter.[5] Due to the unique properties of nanomaterials, it always remains an attention of interest for biomaterial scientists to urge benefits for medical and dental applications to enhance the standard of life.[6] Nanodentistry, a dental field of nanotechnology, seems to be very promising and has demonstrated various treatment opportunities in dentistry in areas such as dental re-naturalization, local anesthesia, dental hypersensitivity cure, periodontal regeneration, controlled drug delivery, and overall oral health maintenance, among others.


  History Top


As early as 1867, a revolutionary concept of nanotechnology was proposed by James Clerk Maxwell. Prof. Kerie E. Drexler coined the term nanotechnology. The concept of nanomaterials was brought about by Richard Zsigmondy in the early 20th century.[7] An interesting possibility for the use of extremely small machines was suggested by Albert R. Hibbshad.[8]

R. A. Freitas in 2000 coined the term “nanodentistry.” Visions were developed by him using nano-robots for orthodontics, regeneration of dentition, and robots in dentifrices – dentifrobots.[2]


  Nanoparticles Top


Nanomaterials are divided into four groups as zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional. The different types of nanoparticles are: (1) nano-pores, (2) nanorods, (3) nano-tubes, (4) quantum dots, (5) nano-cap, (6) dendrimers, (7) liposomes, (8) fullerenes, (9) nanospheres, (10) nanowires, (11) nanoshells, (12) nanobelts, (13) nanorings, etc.[9] The synthesis of nanoparticles is done by approaches such as bottom-up approach, speculative approach, biomimetic approach, top-down approach, and functional approach.[10] Within the top-down approach, the conventional manner is used to synthesize nanoparticles. Smaller sized nanoparticles are manufactured by grinding or milling. Miniaturization is further carried out to achieve nanodimension. Here, smaller devices are created from larger ones for direction of their assembly. Nanocomposites, nano-based bone replacement cement, nanoneedles, nanoencapsulation, nano impression materials, and nano coatings on implants are made by the top-down approach. The bottom-up approach employs direct molecular synthesis technique to synthesize nanoparticles, that is, these are synthesized at molecular level and assembled to make larger units. The bottom-up approach employs local anesthesia, nano-diagnostics, hypersensitivity cure, tooth regeneration, oral tissue biomimetics, etc. In the functional approach of manufacturing of the nanoparticles, the nanoparticles are prepared based on the particular use of nanoparticles irrespective of how they have been assembled.[11] In biomimetic approach, biomolecules are used for applications in nanotechnology. In speculative approach, a much bigger picture view of nanotechnology is taken into account with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.


  Properties Top


Nanomaterials after improving their properties were found more beneficial in variant fields, such as electrons, biotechnology, bionics, biomedical instrumentations, bio-ceramic, photonics, and electrical ceramics.[12] Nanomaterials exhibit much better mechanical properties such as increased rigidity, firmness, better transparency, increased resistance to abrasion, solvents, heat and is scratchproof, and reduced permeability of gas as compared to traditional materials.[13] Nanoparticles have a greater surface area per unit mass as compared to that of larger particles,[14] and self-assembly is a significant feature of nanostructured materials.[15]


  Nanoparticles in Periodontics Top


Drug delivery

Recently, in a study by Piñón-Segundo et al., in 2005, emulsification–diffusion process was used for the characterization of triclosan-loaded nano-particles.[16] This process is done to obtain a innovative drug delivery system adequate for the treatment of periodontal disease. These nanoparticles present in triclosan work as a homogeneous polymer matrix-type delivery system and the drug is molecularly dispersed. Biodegradable nano-spheres may show timed release of drugs. A good example of this is Arestin, which uses microspheres for the incorporation of tetracycline in local drug delivery.[17] For the effectiveness and advantages of drug delivery system, the drug can be given in many different forms such as encapsulated, entrapped, attached delivery system.[18] Newer drug delivery systems are developed for a particular area of interest. Polymer-based hydrogels are commonly used in dentistry as a drug delivery system. In this system, the rate of release of the drug is controlled by changing the structure of the system. Newer drug delivery systems are being developed to increase the bioavailability of drugs. For periodontal treatment in the near future, drug delivery system such as hollow spheres, nano tubules, and nanocomposite can be used.


  Mouthwashes Top


Mouthwashes are being incorporated by nano-robots so that they can identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria, leaving behind harmless oral flora to flourish in the oral cavity. Nano-encapsulation is the newest approach used for the delivery of biologically effective compounds more effectively to the target area and also preserves the originality of the compound. Their fast penetration and bioavailability can lead to increase in general biological efficacy of nano-encapsulated drugs, while lowering cost, dosage of drug, and cytotoxicity caused by the drug. When encapsulated with chlorhexidine (CHX), its pure nonsalt form prepared by blending of mesoporous silica nanoparticle, is called nano-CHX. In a study done by Seneviratne et al., in 2014, the antibacterial properties of the new nano-CHX particles were assessed on biofilm and planktonic oral pathogenic bacteria and significant results were observed in reducing bacterial load.[19] It could also identify food particles, tartar, and plaque and lift them from the teeth to be rinsed away.


  Dentifrice Top


Continuous debridement of supragingival and subgingival calculus is supposed to be done by nano-robots incorporated in dentifrices in the near future. Nanoparticles have better chemical, physical, and biological properties as compared to their normal-sized, micro-sized, or macro-sized counterparts. A study was done to assess effectiveness on enamel lesion re-mineralization by adding calcium carbonate in nano form to a test dentifrice. This showed a statistically positive result on enamel lesion re-mineralization. The re-mineralizing solution showed an increased calcium concentration even after a one-time use of this dentifrice. The study by Nakashima et al., in 2009, concludes the re-mineralization potential of incipient enamel lesions.[20] By removing the bacteria responsible for the production of volatile compounds leading to halitosis, they will also provide a continuous barrier to halitosis.[21]


  Tissue engineering Top


Nanotechnology is a nonbiologic self-assembling system used for tissue engineering purposes.[22] Self-assembling system is similar to other biologic systems which undergo predefinite assemblies automatically. Researchers are working to develop polymer scaffolds for cell seeding with the help of nano-devices. Nano-fibrous scaffolds have been widely developed as matrices to regenerate dental tissues, including the dentin–pulp complex, enamel, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone, and the temporomandibular joint. It is key that nano-fibrous structure's morphology closely imitates native tissue's architecture because most tissue proteins (such as collagen and elastin) are nanofibers. Due to their large surface area with regard to volume, surface properties (such as surface reactivity, protein adsorption, and surface degradation) are very important when it comes to scaffolds, as these ultimately control cell behavior.[23],[24]


  Dentine hypersensitivity Top


Dentine hypersensitivity is the condition in which sharp pain arises from the exposed dentine in response to stimuli.[25] The stimuli which cause dentine hypersensitivity are thermal, tactile, and chemical. There are compounds which are capable of penetrating exposed dentinal tubules and helps in blockage of stimuli. This mechanism is commonest conservative approach use for treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. Treatment options available for dentinal hypersensitivity are as follows:

  1. Pastes containing ions such as Na+, Ca++, K+, Sr++, and F ions are used as local applicant to block the dentinal tubules
  2. Oral LASER application.


Recently, Dabbagh et al., in 2014, investigated the capability of polyethylene-glycol-coated nanoparticles for occluding dentinal tubules and ultimately decreasing dentinal hypersensitivity.[26] Natural hypersensitive teeth have much higher surface density of dentinal tubules and diameter in comparison to their nonsensitive counterparts. Reconstructive dental nanorobots, using native biological materials, could particularly carry out occlusion of tubules of dentin within minutes, offering patients a fast and permanent cure.[27]


  Dental implant Top


Dental implant failure is most common because there is no sufficient bone formation around the dental implant. A direct contact should exist between the bone and therefore the implant along side stability. Surface of implants needs to be modified for sufficient bone formation, which may use nano-scale topography for more fast and finer integration of bone and implants.[28] Nanotechnology can also treat osseous defects by using nano-bone graft. Nano bone graft should possess the qualities of bone grafts being used today. Their higher surface area to mass ratio is often utilized in the most advantageous manner for treating infrabony defects. Dr. Friedman concluded that the process of wound healing is promoted and accelerated by nanomaterials.


  Conclusion Top


Complete regeneration of the periodontal tissues for the management of periodontal diseases is found to be impossible since several years, but newer advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have provided satisfactory results in the treatment of periodontal diseases. More researches in the development of nanomaterials and nano-devices are required to achieve great results in the field of periodontics. Newer nanomaterials and devices are being studied for further improvement.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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Gupta J. Nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry. J Invest Clin Dent 2011;2:81-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Foster LE. Nanotechnology: Science, Innovation, and Opportunity. Publisher (S): Pearson. ISBN: 9780131927568 Prentice Hall, New Jersey; PTR: 2005.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Piñón-Segundo E, Ganem-Quintanar A, Alonso-Pérez V, Quintanar-Guerrero D. Preparation and characterization of triclosan nanoparticles for periodontal treatment. Int J Pharm 2005;294:217-32.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Paquette DW, Hanlon A, Lessem J, Williams RC. Clinical relevance of adjunctive minocycline microspheres in patients with chronic periodontitis: Secondary analysis of a phase 3 trial. J Periodontol 2004;75:531-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Sahooa SK, Labhasetwar V. Nanotech approaches to drug delivery and imaging. Drug Discov Today 2003;8:1112-20.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
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Seneviratne CJ, Leung KC, Wong CH, Lee SF, Li X, Leung PC, et al. Nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine against oral bacterial biofilms. PLoS One 2014;9:e103234.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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Nakashima S, Yoshie M, Sano H, Bahar A. Effect of a test dentifrice containing nano-sized calcium carbonate on remineralization of enamel lesions in vitro. J Oral Sci 2009;51:69-77.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
History
Nanoparticles
Properties
Nanoparticles in...
Mouthwashes
Dentifrice
Tissue engineering
Dentine hypersen...
Dental implant
Conclusion
References

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