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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 363-366

A novel code for coding of ceramic prosthesis

1 Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, DMIMS (DU), Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Orthodontics, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, DMIMS (DU), Wardha, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, DMIMS (DU), Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission11-May-2021
Date of Decision10-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance18-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication18-Oct-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Seema Sathe
Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, DMIMS (DU), Wardha - 442 001, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_276_21

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How to cite this article:
Sathe S, Godbole S, Shrivastav1 S, Rajanikanth K, Bhoyar A, Dhamande M. A novel code for coding of ceramic prosthesis. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2021;16:363-6

How to cite this URL:
Sathe S, Godbole S, Shrivastav1 S, Rajanikanth K, Bhoyar A, Dhamande M. A novel code for coding of ceramic prosthesis. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 9];16:363-6. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2021/16/2/363/328460

  Introduction Top

Forensic odontology has evolved with the evolution of mankind. Its history dates back to the Eden Garden of Adam and Eve. It is said that the history of bite marks is attributed to the consumption of forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden.

Denture labeling is not an innovative notion in either prosthetic or forensic dentistry. To avoid the confusion about the ownership of denture, this marking is often advised in institutionalized persons. Earlier attempts for coding the dentures have focused on removable dentures, but the marking methods have either spoiled the denture esthetics or has led to increasing the weight of the denture. Furthermore, the fragile nature and flammable character of dentures have rendered them unsuitable for the marking system.[1]

The British Council on Prosthetic Services and Dental laboratory Relations has provided some standards for denture marking.[2]

With the limitations of coding system for fixed partial dentures due to cost or unesthetic appearance or compromise in strength of the restoration, there is a significant need for generating a more feasible coding system.

Thus, an attempt is made through this study to evaluate if it is possible to develop a coding system for ceramic restorations and also to study its efficaciousness and retrievability about the individual.

The aim of this was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of coding system for ceramic restorations for retrieving the identity of individual in forensic dentistry.

  Technique Top

This study focused on developing the code to be used for ceramic restoration.

Developing and embedding the QR (data matrix) code for ceramic restorations: (crown/bridge).

Method for preparing e-max samples

Once the complete elimination of the wax pattern was carried out, an ingot of e-max was placed in the mold prepared as a result of the burnout of the wax which was then pressed with a plunger in the ivoclar system. It was allowed to stand for the period of 1 h. Samples showing any inaccuracies, especially on the palatal aspect, were eliminated. Thus, the present study comprised 50 samples of e-max press lithium disilicate [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Lithium disilicate crowns

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QR (data matrix) code design can be generated using various mobile apps or using some authorized software. In the development of coding for fixed dental prosthesis as our working area was restricted and size, we required for QR code was too small we planned to customize the size of coding along with a content of code in dimension required for our study. We generated QR code with mobile app software. After multiple attempts, we succeeded in reducing it from standard size to size of 5 mm, but when it was exposed to be read by barcode reader it failed to recognize the code and the generated code was not readable. After multiple unsuccessful attempts, Finally, a QR code (data matrix) of 3.75 mm dimension was generated. Twelve digits Aadhaar number was selected to be incorporated in the code. After selection of the Aadhaar number for incorporation, it was edited in the Zebra Design software. Using Zebra Design software and following their instructions the QR (data matrix) code was generated. After the entry of the QR code in the software, it was then printed using specialized heat-resistant paper. The labeling technique of QR (data matrix) code involves printing a number code on customized heat-resistant paper by thermal transfer digital printing method. The QR (data matrix) code was incorporated just before the application of glaze. After visual confirmation of the appearance of complete code on the prosthesis, the crown was glazed. The code covered by glazed layer of all ceramic e-max crowns could be read easily [Figure 2]. These codes can also be scanned using mobile phone camera [Figure 3]. These software are available for free on the internet. On scanning the code, the screen displays the Aadhaar number. As the utility of the QR (data matrix) code scanning by the mobile phone may be limited to the anterior region, we used a tube scanner [Figure 4] which has the ease of use. Due to its small size and maneuverability, it can be used in the posterior-most areas. It has to be connected to the computer and it displays the image of the barcode on the screen. This image can be scanned with the help of scanner or mobile phone. The site for Aadhaar is to be accessed through the internet through uidai.gov.in. When on the site, access the option of Aadhaar services. Then log in to verify Aadhaar. Once at this site, enter the 12 digits Aadhaar number and press proceed to verify. The site displays the verification.
Figure 2: Application of glazed layer

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Figure 3: Scanning using mobile phone camera

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Figure 4: Scanning by endotube scanner

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  Discusión Top

Various techniques of labeling including inclusion and surface techniques were described in the literature over the years. Each technique has its own merits and demerits.[3] Surface markings are considered inexpensive ways of coding but they wear off easily. Inclusion methods are relatively more permanent and provide a positive result, but the amount of data that can be written on them is limited and requires a well-trained laboratory personnel.[4]

  Selection of the Site for Coding Top

In all-ceramic or porcelain crowns or bridges, engraving method for coding is not possible due to the brittleness of porcelain. It would either compromise the strength or esthetics. Therefore, the coding for all-ceramic e-max crowns with digital coding system was preferred.

The patient opting for the e-max crowns is esthetic conscious. Hence, coding in such cases is desired to be carried out in areas which are not easily visible. Hence, the site selected for coding in our study was on the palatal or lingual aspects of the restorations. Similar site was selected by Akbaba et al. in 2018 in which they labeled the lingual aspect of metal restoration using laser.[5]

  Criteria for Selection of Coding System Top

Currently, there are multiple coding systems available of which Barcodes and QR codes are the types of codes using recent technology.

Barcode is a graphic depiction in the form of bar and spaces of data on a surface. These bars and spaces have different widths and contain numbers, characters, and symbols in the form of dot, colon, and others. Barcodes are in the form of rectangles which consist of thin or thick lines parallel to each other. Scanners or cameras are usually required to read the barcodes.[6] Numerous studies have reported using the barcode in their complete denture cases.[7],[8],[9] The QR code can help track and store information about individuals and form a useful aid in medicolegal aspects and forensic odontology. One of the most important advantages is of the accuracy of the information that this digital system offers in comparison to the entry done manually. Human errors can occur while carrying out manual tracking, but the QR codes are considered to be very accurate. The speed of the system allows tracking to be done quickly. They are cost-effective and a reliable method of entering and storing data.[10]

QR code have also been used in a case report Varmudy et al.[10] and also in a study carried out by Poovannan et al.[9] In an article by Sheriff et al., multiple advantages have been quoted for using the two-dimensional matrix code.[11]

  Criteria for Development of Code Top

Data matrix code used in the study has the additional benefit of being readable even after distortion up to 30% and does not require the contrast as critically as in barcode scanning.[12]

In a study reported by Dineshshankar et al., it was quoted that to be readable the size of the barcode should be at least 12 mm.[13] However, the code developed in the study has the advantage of being small as well as readable. The smallest code that was used for the identification of complete denture prosthesis was by Mahoorkar and Jain of size 6 mm.[14]

  Criteria for Selection of Aadhaar Card Number for Identification Top

In the present study, as content for incorporation in QR (data matrix) code, we proceeded with the use of 12-digit Aadhaar card number issued by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) as an identification code. This Aadhaar number is unique for every citizen and can be used to identify the residents anywhere in the country. Similar use of Aadhaar card was done in a study carried out by Pathak et al. The main characteristics of Aadhaar card which are quoted in the study includes: Permanency, uniqueness, and global. It provides a national platform for ID authentication.[15] Similarly, the use of Aadhaar card number was done in a study by Sikka et al., in which they labeled the complete denture using Aadhaar number by incorporating it in quick response code.[16]

  Conclusion Top

The QR (data matrix) code used in the present study can be used for coding of ceramic prosthesis. This is the smallest QR code of size 3.75 mm.

The code was reliable since almost all samples were readable when scanned with scanner.


The authors acknowledge and thank Mr. Piyush Agrawal, Director, Plastochem industries, Calcutta for his support in this study.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Alexander PM, Taylor JA, Szuster FS, Brown KA. An assessment of attitudes to, and extent of, the practice of denture marking in south Australia. Aust Dent J 1998;43:337-41.  Back to cited text no. 1
Stavrianos CH, Petalotis N, Metska M, Stavrianou I, Papadopoulos CH. The value of identification marking on dentures. Balk J Stom 2007;11:212-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
Richmond R, Pretty IA. A range of postmortem assault experiments conducted on a variety of denture labels used for the purpose of identification of edentulous individuals. J Forensic Sci 2009;54:411-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
Bhathal MK, Garg S. Role of Denture Marking in Human identification-A Clinical Review. IP Annals of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry. 2016;1:26-31  Back to cited text no. 4
Akbaba H, Zortuk M, Albayrak H. Implementation of a prosthetic labelling process in implant-supported fixed prosthesis and comparison of two different methods: An in vitro study. Egypt J Forensic Sci 2018;8:71.  Back to cited text no. 5
Hashim NM, Ibrahim NA, Saad NM, Sakaguchi F, Zakaria Z. Barcode recognition system. IJETTCS 2013;2:278-83.  Back to cited text no. 6
Acharya AB, Anehosur GV, Kanchi PP, Naik MG, Nadiger RK. Perceptions and preferences on denture marking in an Indian sample: Patient perception to denture marking in India. Gerodontology 2012;29:117-24.  Back to cited text no. 7
Naito Y, Meinar AN, Iwawaki Y, Kashiwabara T, Goto T, Ito T, et al. Recording of individual identification information on dental prostheses using fluorescent material and ultraviolet light. Int J Prosthodont 2013;26:172-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
Poovannan S, Jain AR, Krishnan CJ, Chandran CR. An In vitro evaluation of the reliability of QR code denture labeling technique. J Forensic Dent Sci 2016;8:179.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Varmudy N, Regish KM, Rupesh PL. Personal identification using QR Code incorporated in dentures. Archives of Oral Research. 2013:9.  Back to cited text no. 10
Sheriff AH, Dhanraj D, Nittla DP. Denture marking systems – A systematic review. Int J Curr Res 2017;9:5.  Back to cited text no. 11
Vashisht D. Role of lasers in forensic prosthodontics – A review. J Res Med Dent Sci 2020;8:3.  Back to cited text no. 12
Dineshshankar J, Venkateshwaran R, Vidhya J, Anuradha R, Mary GP, Pradeep R, et al. Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2015;7:S350-3.  Back to cited text no. 13
Mahoorkar S, Jain A. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode. J Forensic Dent Sci 2013;5:60-3.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Pathak C, Pawah S, Sikri A, Rao I. Unique denture identification system for all Indian nationals. Contemp Clin Dent 2018;9 Suppl 1:S185-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
Sikka N, Saxena S, Priya K, Suthar V. Momentousness of denture labeling using Aadhaar number in Indian population. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:2760-2.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  


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