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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 354-356

Critical appraisal of curriculum content for Bachelor Of Science in intensive care technology under faculty of allied health sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) as Against Subject Centricity


1 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission04-Jun-2021
Date of Decision18-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance28-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication18-Oct-2021

Correspondence Address:
Gaurav Vedprakash Mishra
Associate Professor, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_292_21

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  Abstract 


Background: The specialty of intensive care of patients, also known widely as “critical care medicine” is one that includes how to properly look after and take care of patients who are critically ill. In the academic year 2020–2021, an undergraduate course curriculum on intensive care technology was launched in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), the curricular inclusions for which were the document of interest for the present study. It is vital to determine the standing of the curriculum prepared for a new course for undergraduates with regard to its centricity– learner based, subject based or problem based. Here, the cognitive domain can be viewed in the subject based inclusions. The present study attempts to delineate the curricular inclusions for the said curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology under Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) as against typing of curriculum based on subject centricity. Materials and Methods: Rapid review of the literature with reference to the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology under Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) in the academic year 2020–2021 for purpose of their “typing” with principles of curriculum design' was done. Results: According to principles of curricular design by Schweitzer based on centricity of curriculum, the curricular inclusions were divided into three types–subject centred inclusions, problem-centered inclusions and learner-centered inclusions. The total number of curricular inclusions was 539. Ideally taking the ratio of curricular inclusions as 6:3:1, there should be 323 subject-centered inclusions, 162 problem-centered inclusion, and 54 learner centered. Out of this, there were 313 inclusions which were observed to be subject centred, 206 inclusions were problem centered and 20 were centred upon the learner. Thus, the overall percentage of typing of the inclusions was 58.07% subject centricity, 38.21% problem centricity and 3.7% learner centricity. The observed deficit of inclusions in subject centricity was 10, a surplus of 44 inclusions was observed in problem-centered inclusions whereas the learner-centered inclusions showed a deficit of 34 objectives. Conclusion: The undergraduate course curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology under Faculty of Allied Health Sciences included in the present study for typing of included curricular inclusions has been typed based on their centricity upon the subject.

Keywords: Centricity, curriculum, evaluation


How to cite this article:
Mishra GV, Dhok A, Srivastava T, Singh RK, Patwa PA. Critical appraisal of curriculum content for Bachelor Of Science in intensive care technology under faculty of allied health sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) as Against Subject Centricity. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2021;16:354-6

How to cite this URL:
Mishra GV, Dhok A, Srivastava T, Singh RK, Patwa PA. Critical appraisal of curriculum content for Bachelor Of Science in intensive care technology under faculty of allied health sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) as Against Subject Centricity. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 4];16:354-6. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2021/16/2/354/328464




  Introduction Top


The specialty of intensive care of patients, also known widely as “critical care medicine” is one that includes how to properly look after and take care of patients who are critically ill. It also includes taking medical care of patients who might be at risk of developing life-threatening conditions, who might be subjected to invasive techniques for monitoring of vital parameters as desired, who might be in need of resuscitation and end-of-life care under its umbrella.[1] This specialty needs dedicated work from multiple healthcare specialties within a hospital setup.[1] To produce an assistant to the physician or surgeon or clinician working in the intensive care unit, the curriculum so prepared should be inclusive of competencies encompassing over all aspects of the specialties involved and should ensure teaching and learning activities targeted on all three domains of learning–cognitive, psychomotor and affective.[2] In the academic year 2020–2021, an undergraduate course curriculum on Intensive care technology was launched in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), the curricular inclusions for which were the document of interest for the present study. It is vital to determine the standing of the curriculum prepared for a new course for undergraduates with regards to its centricity–learner based, subject based or problem based. Here, the cognitive domain can be viewed in the subject based inclusions. The present study attempts to delineate the curricular inclusions for the said curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology under Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) as against typing of curriculum based on subject centricity.


  Materials and Methods Top


Period of study

Six months.

Design

Descriptive study.

Procedure

Rapid review of the literature with reference to the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology under Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) in the academic year 2020–2021 for purpose of their “typing” with principles of curriculum design' was done.

Data and collection tools

  1. The curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology under Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University)[3]
  2. Typing of the curriculum with reference to its centricity propounded by Schweitzer.[4]


Study definition

Curricular inclusions which dealt with the cognitive component imparted by the subject curriculum were listed as subject-centered inclusions. Curricular inclusions which dealt with the psychomotor domain, as well as practical sessions, were listed as problem-centered inclusions. Curricular inclusions which expressed the learner directly as well as those under the category “studentship” and “electives” were listed as learner-centered inclusions.


  Results Top


According to principles of curricular design by Schweitzer based on centricity of curriculum, the curricular inclusions were divided into three types–subject-centered inclusions, problem-centered inclusions, and learner-centred inclusions.

The total number of curricular inclusions was 539. Ideally taking the ratio of curricular inclusions as 6:3:1, there should be 323 subject-centered inclusions, 162 problem-centered inclusion and 54 learner centered. Out of this, there were 313 inclusions which were observed to be subject centered, 206 inclusions were problem centered and 20 were centered upon the learner.

Thus the overall percentage of typing of the inclusions was 58.07% subject centricity, 38.21% problem centricity, and 3.7% learner centricity. The observed deficit of inclusions in subject centricity was 10, a surplus of 44 inclusions was observed in problem-centered inclusions whereas the learner-centered inclusions showed a deficit of 34 objectives [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Table 1: Number of inclusions on the basis of curriculum centricity types - ideal and observed with surplus or deficit indicated by “+” and “−” signs respectively

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Table 2: Percentage of inclusions on the basis of curriculum centricity types - ideal and observed with surplus or deficit indicated by “+” and “−” signs respectively

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  Discussion Top


The curriculum of any subject should be based mainly on the cognitive aspect of the subject as it forms the base of all further extensions of knowledge. The taxonomy given by Bloom in the 1950s serves as a base document guiding through this aspect.[2] A six-level hierarchy, irrespective of the doubts and controversies, encompasses its span from knowledge at its most basic level to evaluation at the topmost level. The sequence is from knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The curricular inclusions of any subject should make an imaginary pyramid with the base of about 60% of total inclusions to be adhered to the subject, in other words, the cognitive domain or aspect of the subject. The main reason for this is that the psychomotor, as well as affective domains, have their origins within the cognitive domain. Without cognition, there will be no psychomotor activity with proper meaning and direction. And without the confluence of cognition and psychomotor domains, the affective domain will not materialise. The curricular inclusions which are subject centred and based on the cognitive domain should be in a logical sequence of actions and activities which are to be taught to the learner and absorbed by him/her in such a way that he/she can recall it at will. Not only a simple recall, but further engagement should result in the enhancement of the learner to understand the same in addition to the recall of facts and information. When the learner has understood the information, it can be said that he/she has progressed further than simply recalling the information and is ready to use this information in various life scenarios and can “apply” the information at will. On application of knowledge, the learner may come across multiple situations where he should be able to weigh in the benefits, risks or advantages and disadvantages or pros and cons of that particular situation– where “analysis” forms the next step. On analysis, the most suitable idea or direction can be selected and progressed further upon, leading to possibly the formation of a new idea/process– where “synthesis” forms the next step. Now, the learner is in a position to make decisions based on his learning experiences obtained along the course of time and he/she can test the newly developed idea/process. Thus, the six-level hierarchy given by Bloom[2] takes the learner on a voyage from simple recall of facts to the topmost level of being able to synthesize and evaluate the new ideas and thoughts with evidence.

The same course/progression has to be adhered to while preparation of curricular inclusions and subject has to be transformed into an imaginary ladder of progression along the path of knowledge where the learner is expected to be engaged at multiple levels of cognition one by one thereby making the learner more and more competent in the subject.

The Miller's pyramid which consists of 4 levels–know, know how, show how, does/perform[5] can be referred here as far as the curricular inclusions are concerned on the ground of competence. The subject centricity of the curriculum spans over the lowermost 2 blocks of Miller's pyramid–know and know how. Without knowing, the learner cant progress to further levels of clinical competence.

The curricular inclusions in any subject should be classified under the levels of competence as ones under know, know how, show how and does/perform levels. The cognitive domain will cover the know and know how levels and therefore form the path essentially necessary for the learner to take to ascend to the next domains of learning–psychomotor and affective.

The present study has highlighted the subject-centered curricular inclusions for the newly launched undergraduate course of Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology under the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences in Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University).


  Conclusion Top


The undergraduate course curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology under Faculty of Allied Health Sciences included in the present study for typing of included curricular inclusions has been typed based on their centricity upon the subject. There are observed variations from the ideal scenario of curricular centricity which may be subjected to further consideration and modifications.

The modes of teaching and learning and assessment of the learner need to be allocated against each curricular inclusion in all the academic course curricula included herein.

Statement of informed consent

Not applicable for the present study.

Statement of consent to publish

Not applicable for the present study.

Ethical clearance

The present study protocol was subjected to scrutiny by Institutional Ethics Committee, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (deemed to be university) and clearance certificate was obtained therein for commencement of present study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Gabrielli A, Layon AJ, Yu M, Civetta JM, Taylor RW. Kirby RR. Civetta, Taylor, and Kirby's Critical Care. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bloom B, Mesia B, Krathwohl D. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Two Vols: The Affective Domain and The Cognitive Domain). New York: David McKay; 1964.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Course Curriculum for Bachelor of Science in Intensive Care Technology (B.Sc ICT). Department of Anaesthesia. Faculty of Allied Health Sciences. Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (deemed to be university); 2020-2021.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Schweitzer K. Curriculum Design: Definition, Purpose and Types. Available from: https://www.thoughtco.com/curriculum-design- definition-4154176. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med 1990;65:S63-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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