• Users Online: 55
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 36-41

Treatment-seeking behaviors of families for under five children in field practice area of jawaharlal nehru medical college, Wardha


Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission11-May-2020
Date of Decision18-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance20-Jan-2021
Date of Web Publication29-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shashank Gotarkar
Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1319-4534.322605

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Context: Globally, India had the largest population of under-five (127 million), and the greatest number of under five deaths (2.1 million) in 2006. Nearly about 2 million of cases of diarrhea occur annually in India. An average Indian child below 5 years of age can have 2–3 episodes of diarrhea. It contributes to nearly 2.1 million of the global burden of 9.7 million under five deaths, which is the highest for any nation in the world. The Millennium Development Goal 4 aimed at reducing under-five mortality by two-third till year 2015 which remained unachieved and sustainable development goal 3 aims to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages including under-five children by the year 2030. The health and treatment-seeking behavior of parents and caregivers has direct reflection over child survival statistics of India. The present study has been conducted to study the determinants of treatment-seeking behavior of families for illness of under-five children in the field practice area of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC), Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. Aims: A study on the treatment-seeking behaviors of families for illnesses of under-five children in field practice area of JNMC, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. Objectives: The objective of this study is to know the treatment-seeking behaviors of families for under-five children in rural areas. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the field practice area of community medicine JNMC, Sawangi Wardha, Maharashtra, India. The present study was carried out in the adopted villages from the field practice area of Wardha district by the JNMC. The present study was a community-based, cross-sectional study, and the study period was 6 months (i.e., from July 2019 to December 2019).The study participants comprised of the caregivers of children under-5 years of age and including mothers and other family members who were primarily responsible for attending the child's health. All children in the age group of 0 to 5 years from the study area were identified for the same (from Anganwadi's in the villages). The study participants, i.e., parents who were ready to participate in the study by signing the written consent were included in the study. Statistical Analysis Used: A predesigned and prestructured questionnaire was prepared and implemented for data collection. Results: The results showed that most of the under-five children were in the age group of 2–3 years. Most of the under-five children were having itching on skin followed by fever and diarrhea. Most of the parents took their under-five children to ANM's or the government hospital situated at their place. Conclusions: The present study concludes that treatment-seeking practices among parents for under-five children in the adopted villages of medical college are satisfactory in terms of qualified treatment provider and compliance to the treatment.

Keywords: Field practice area, morbidity pattern, treatment-seeking behaviors, treatment-seeking practices under-five children


How to cite this article:
Ingole A, Yadav S, Gotarkar S, Choudhari S. Treatment-seeking behaviors of families for under five children in field practice area of jawaharlal nehru medical college, Wardha. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2021;16:36-41

How to cite this URL:
Ingole A, Yadav S, Gotarkar S, Choudhari S. Treatment-seeking behaviors of families for under five children in field practice area of jawaharlal nehru medical college, Wardha. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 16];16:36-41. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2021/16/1/36/322605




  Introduction Top


In spite of the epidemiological transition of diseases globally, child morbidity still remains a challenge in the developing world. Children are dependent on their parents for their health and well-being. Being young, they are vulnerable to a number of infections. Appropriate and timely health-seeking behavior of caregivers can help reduce the predisposing morbidities and mortality associated with acute illness and thus giving a significant impact on the survival. Every child, no matter under which environment or background they were born deserve a good start in life and health well-being.

Globally, India had the largest population of under-five (127 million), and the greatest number of under-five deaths (2.1 million) in 2006. Nearly about 2 million of cases of diarrhea occur annually in India. An average Indian child below 5 years of age can have 2–3 episodes of diarrhea. It contributes to nearly 2.1 million of the global burden of 9.7 million under-five deaths, which is the highest for any nation in the world. The Millennium Development Goal 4, aimed at reducing under-five mortality by two-third till year 2015 which remained unachieved and sustainable development goal 3 aims to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages including under-five children by the year 2030.

The childhood diseases assessed in National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS-4) were the episodes of diarrhea, acute respiratory infections (ARI), and anemia. The incidence of diarrhea remained the same (9%) between NFHS-3 and NFHS-4, whereas the prevalence of ARI almost halved from the level of 5.6% to 2.1%. Child survival in India varies significantly across states, geographical location, and socioeconomic factors, reflecting uneven development in the country and inequalities in many aspects of life. Childhood morbidity can be determined by multiple complex and inter-related factors which later on can pose a threat on their early childhood development and later life, more so even in their adulthood.

Low morbidity may occur due to the actual lack of disease awareness and under or partial reporting, however, children are the future pillar of any nation and country and increased morbidity profile of the children during the under-five age group has a great consequence on the overall development and progress of the country. The under-five age group is very crucial phase of life because it is during this period the transition of a child occurs and is struggling to come into harmonic equilibrium with the surrounding environment.

Most of the development occurs while the child is young and if a child is deprived of the health care during the most critical years of life, then the child is likely to be deprived of the opportunity of growing into a normal human being and become a productive adult too, and the damage done through the first year of a child's life is irreversible.

The health and treatment-seeking behavior of parents and caregivers have direct reflection over child survival statistics of India. The present study has been undertaken to study the determinants of treatment-seeking behavior of families for illness of under-five children in the field practice area of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC), Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Reducing the burden of childhood morbidity and mortality requires better care of normal and sick children. It also needs better treatment-seeking behaviors of parents and people involved imparting health care to children and their compliance to the advices of health-care provider.

Knowledge about treatment-seeking behavior for under-five children, and reasons behind such behavior will help in recommending for policy toward child health-care services in India.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]

Aim

”A study on the treatment-seeking behaviors of families for illnesses of under-five children in the field practice area of JNMC, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.”

Objectives

The objective of this study is to know the treatment-seeking behaviors of families for under-five children in the rural areas.


  Materials and Methods Top


Study setting

This study was carried out in the field practice area of community medicine JNMC, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. The present study was carried out in the villages such as Salod, Umari Meghe, Nimgaon, Dahegaon, and Waigaon, which are the adopted villages from the field practice area of Wardha district by the JNMC.

Study design

The present study is a community-based, cross-sectional study.

Study duration

The study period was 6 months (i.e., from July 2019 to December 2019).

Study participants

The study participants comprised of the caregivers of children under-five years of age and including mothers and other family members who were primarily responsible for attending the child's health. All children in the age group of 0 to 5 years from the study area were identified for the same (from Anganwadi's in the villages). Study participants, i.e., parents who were ready to participate in the study by signing the written consent were included in the study.

Sample size

According to NFHS 4 (2015–2016) data for Maharashtra, in the 2 weeks prior to survey (Treatment of Childhood Diseases children under age 5 years), the prevalence of children suffering from diarrhea in rural areas was reported to be 9.9%, followed by the prevalence of symptoms of ARI in the past 2 weeks preceding the survey (%) which was 2.2% for rural areas. Hence, the sample size was calculated for the study which came out to be 275.

Data collection tools and procedure

A predesigned and prestructured questionnaire was prepared and implemented for the data collection. Parents or caregivers of under-five children were interviewed using the questionnaire (data collection tool) comprising of following components:

  1. Treatment-seeking behaviors for under-five children
  2. Home-based treatment for common ailments in under-five children.


Ethical considerations

Written consent was obtained from mother/father for participating in the study; parents were explained that the information obtained from them was kept strictly confidential and their children's identity won't be revealed anywhere. The information obtained from parents was only used only for academic purpose.

Ethical clearance

The Institutional Ethics Committee of DMIMSDU has approved the Research work proposed to be carried out at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi(M), Wardha. Date: 7th Nov 2018 with Reference no DMIMS(DU)/IEC/2018-19/1330.


  Observations and Results Top



  Discussion Top


The present study is being discussed based on its observations and results.

Sociodemographic determinants of families for under-five children

The present study was conducted in five villages with approximate population of 5800 (as per base line surveys of Unnat Bharath Abhiyaan, 2019). A total of 275 under-five children were covered as a part of this study percentage of distribution according to the age group was 8.72% in 0–12 months age group, 17.4% in 13–23 months age group, 34.5% in 25–36 months age group, 18.9% in 37–48 months age group, and 20.3% in 49–60 months age group. Males constituted 157, i.e., 57.0% of total study participant, whereas females constituted 118, i.e., 42.9% of total study participant. This finding is analogous with a study by Avachat S S et al. in 2011 in a study on under-five children in Western Maharashtra.[14] Other studies on under-five children were conducted in the different parts of the country; however, findings were not found to be comparable.

Sociodemographic characteristic of under-five children

In this study, it is found that around 18.5% of study participants, i.e., 51 study participants were illiterate, whereas 81.1% of females were literate. Rao S et al. in 1981 and 2001 showed 20.66% literacy in women in 1981 and 54.16% in 2001, whereas Avachat S S et al. in 2011 in their study of rural area of Western Maharashtra, India, revealed 74.3% of literate female.[14] A study by Karki M et al. 2019 in the rural areas of Bangalore, India, reported 79% of mothers educated and 22% illiterate mothers.[29] Thus, literacy rate among women in rural Maharashtra shows a rising trend but is less than rural Bangalore and other studies from South India.

The present study shows that most of the females, i.e., 60.4% were homemakers. Karki M et al. 2019 shows 26% of homemaker mothers in the rural areas of Bangalore, India.[29] Mishra K et al. in 2017 reported 77.69% homemakers, in urban slum of Bhubaneswar Odisha.[7]

Family structure studied in the present study revealed 89.4% joint families and 10.5% nuclear families which is very high proportion of joint families as compared to the findings from other studies. Avachat S S et al. in 2011 in their study from the rural area of Western Maharashtra reported 60.9% joint and extended families and 39.1% were nuclear type of families.[14] Sathish D D et al. in their study from Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, in 2019 shows 14.8% joint families and 73.2% nuclear families.[14]

In this study, 66.2% families had one under-five child in the family; 32.7% families were having two under-five children followed by 1.1% of families having three under-five children in a single family. Shaikh S et al. in 2016 in an emergency preparedness platform (Evaluation and Health Section of UNICEF) reported one under-five child in 45% families, two under-five children in 42% families, and three under-five children in 13% families.[32] This shows decreasing trend for number of under-five children in the rural community which is a good indicator toward the adoption of spacing methods of family planning in the rural areas [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4].[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13]
Table 1: Age and sex-wise distribution of under-five children

Click here to view
Table 2: Treatment received for illness in under five children in last 1 month

Click here to view
Table 3: Treatment provider for illness of under-five children in the past 1 month

Click here to view
Table 4: Place of treatment for illness of under-five children in the past 1 month

Click here to view


Morbidity pattern in under-five children

The present study shows 33.5% fever, 47.3% symptoms of respiratory symptoms, including cold and/or running of nose and/or blockage of nose, 24.4% cough, 2.2% children had difficult/rapid breathing, 22.5% diarrhea, 16% itching on skin/scabies, and 3.6% bleeding through nose among under-five children.

In the present study, 33.55% of under 5-year children were suffering from fever. A study conducted by Dev S D et al. in 2019 shows 21% cases of fever in Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India.[14] A study conducted by Minhas A et al. 2017 shows 45.8% cases of fever in district Kangra Himachal Pradesh.[31] A study done by Anne R A et al. 2012 shows 21.6% cases of fever in Madhupur Thana under a rural area of Tangail District.[15] A study conducted by Shaikh S et al. 2016 shows 64.88% cases of fever in district Jamshoro, Sindh.[32] Thus, the variable prevalence of fever is reported from the various parts of the country depending on seasonal and regional influence.

In this study, 47.3% cases of cold/running/blockage of nose were found. A study conducted by Dev S D et al. 2019 shows 15.6% cases of cold/ARI in Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India.[14] A study done by Anne R A et al. 2012 shows 21.76% cases of common cold in Madhapur Thana under a rural area of Tangail District.[15] A study conducted by Shaikh S et al. 2016 shows 43.45% cases of runny nose in district Jamshoro, Sindh. Thus, our study reported a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including cold and/or running of nose and/or blockage of nose as compared to other studies.[32]

In the present study, 24.4% cases of cough were found. A study conducted by Minhas A et al. 2017 shows 49.8% cases of cough in district Kangra Himachal Pradesh.[31] A study conducted by Shaikh S et al. 2016 shows 51.19% cases of cough in district Jamshoro, Sindh. In this study, 2.2% cases were found with difficult/rapid breathing. A study conducted by Shaikh S et al. 2016 shows 16.66% cases of difficult breathing in district Jamshoro, Sindh. Thus, the findings are comparable with those reported by other studies.[32]

In the present study, 22.5% diarrhea cases were found. A study conducted by Minhas A et al. 2017 9.0% diarrhea cases found as this study was carried out during the month of April so less diarrhea cases were found as compared to the present study in which 22.5% diarrhea cases found as study was carried out during the month of August to December.[31] A study conducted by Shaikh S et al. 2016 shows 24.4% cases of diarrhea in district Jamshoro, Sindh.[32] A study done by Anne R A et al. 2012 shows 16.69% cases of diarrhea in Madhapur Thana under a rural area of Tangail District.

The present study shows 1.1% cases of blood in stool. Similar findings were found in the study of Shaikh S et al. 2016 were 1.19% cases of blood in stool in district Jamshoro, Sindh.[32]

The present study shows 16% cases of itching on skin/scabies. Similar results were found by Minhas A et al. 2017 in which 6.7% cases of skin diseases in district Kangra Himachal Pradesh.[31] Study of Shaikh S et al. 2016 show no cases of generalized skin rash in district Jamshoro, Sindh.[32] A study done by Anne R A et al. 2012 shows 17.83% cases of skin disease/scabies in Madhapur Thana under a rural area of Tangail District.[15] Thus, findings from our study are comparable to those reported from other parts of the country.[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34]


  Conclusions Top


The present study concludes that treatment-seeking practices among parents for under-five children in the adopted villages of medical college are satisfactory in terms of qualified treatment provider and compliance to the treatment. Furthermore, it was found that utilization of tertiary health facilities like medical colleges is more when the rural area is affiliated to the village adoption of medical colleges.

Recommendation

The treatment-seeking behaviors of parents of under-five children were found to be satisfactory over various parameters as it was studied in the adopted rural areas of a tertiary hospital of medical college. Hence, the study concludes better treatment-seeking behaviors among parents covered with rural adoption of tertiary care setups in the area.

IEC activities should be enhanced at village level so as to improve the behavior of mothers to seek the timely consultation from a qualified doctor for the illness and proper adherence to the treatment. There is felt need to sensitize health-care practitioners in both government and private sectors toward health problems in under five-year children and providing feasible treatment modalities.

Limitations

The present study was a cross-sectional survey in identified adopted villages. Hence, the findings would not be generalizable and have a limited external validity.

The present study only covered treatment-seeking behavior of families for under-five children in rural areas. However, many studies compare treatment-seeking behavior of rural and urban families and also urban slums. This comparison of treatment-seeking behavior in rural, urban, and urban slum population cannot be done with the present study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
GOI, Office of Registrar General and Census; 2011. Available from: http://www.census2011.co.in. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 16].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Wadgave VH. Burden of childhood morbidities in under - fives in urban slum areas. J Dr NTR Univ Health Sci 2013;2:96-101.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
UNICEF. The State Of The World's Children 2008: Children in An Urban World. Available from: http://www.unicef.org/sowc08/docs/sowc08.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 26].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Chatterjee A, Paily VP. Achieving millennium development goals 4 and 5 in India. BJOG 2011;118 Suppl 2:47-59.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
All Sustainable Development Goals. Available from: https://www.cdp.net/en/policy-and-public-affairs/sustainable-development-goals/all-sustainable-development-goals. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 16].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Nonita D, Sankalp D, Jyoti K, Damodar B. Childhood morbidity and mortality in India. (NFHS - 4) findings. Indian Pediatr 2018;55:335-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kagabo DM, Kirk CM, Bakundukize B, Hedt-Gauthier BL, Gupta N, Hirschhorn LR, et al. Care-seeking patterns among families that experienced under-five child mortality in rural Rwanda. PLoS One 2018;13:e0190739.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
National Family Health Survey - 4 2015 -16 State Fact Sheet Maharashtra, MOHFW, Government of India. Available from: http://rchiips.org/NFHS/pdf/NFHS4/MH_FactSheet.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Nov 22].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India. Students Handlbook for Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness. World health organization Country office for India: World Health Organization, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Examining the Changing Health Care Seeking Behavior in the Era of Health Sector Reforms in India: Evidences from the National Sample Surveys 2004 and … PubMed - NCBI. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2920207. [Last accessed on 2019 Aug 21].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Level of Modern Health Care Seeking Behaviors among Mothers Having under Five Children in Dangila Town, North West Ethiopia, 2016: A Cross Sectiona … PubMed - NCBI. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29843796. [Last accessed on 2019 Aug 21].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Kumar KL, Ashok V, Ganaie F, Ramesh AC. Nasopharyngeal carriage, antibiogram and amp; Serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy under five children. Indian J Med Res 2014;140:216-20.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
13.
Guillot M, Gerland P, Pelletier F, Saabneh A. Child mortality estimation: A global overview of Infant and child mortality age patterns in light of new empirical data. PLoS Med 2012;9:1-15. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429403. [Last cited on 2019 Sep 19].  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Hamooya BM, Chongwe G, Dambe R, Halwiindi H. Treatment-seeking behaviour for childhood fever among caretakers of Chivuna and Magoye rural communities of Mazabuka District, Zambia: A longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 2016;16:762.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Kassahun G, Wakgari N, Abrham R. Patterns and predictive factors of unhealthy practice among mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, postnatal and newborn care in Southern Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes 2019;12:594.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Kallupurackal SJ, Hamsaveni G, Rafeek A, Mendez A, Manu KK, Chitturi L, et al. A cross sectional study to assess the morbidity pattern among under five-year-old children in urban Chitradurga, South India. Int J Community Med Public Health 2019;6:2368-71.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Jain D, Bagul AS, Shah M, Sarathi V. Morbidity pattern in hospitalized under five children with sickle cell disease. Indian J Med Res 2013;138:317-21.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
18.
SathishDev D, Sugantha Valli M, GnanaSezhian M, Suganya E. A cross-sectional study on morbidity status among school going adolescents in Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu. Int J Community Med Public Health 2019;16:201-5.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Karki M, Mathew L. A study to assess the knowledge, and practice on health seeking behaviour of mothers during child illness in rural areas of Bangalore, India. Int J Health Sci 2019;9:10.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Abdulkadir MB, Abdulkadir ZA. A cross-sectional survey of parental care-seeking behavior for febrile illness among under-five children in Nigeria. Alexandria J Med 2017;53:85-91.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Minhas DA, Bansal DP, Chander DV, Sharma DS. Assessment of morbidity profile among under five children and treatment seeking behavior of their parents in district Kangra Himachal Pradesh. Int J Curr Res 2017;9:11.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Shaikh S, Memon S, Shiakh F, Memon Y. Care Seeking Practices of Mothers Regarding Four Key Family Practices Related to Child Health and Development. Ann. Pak. Inst. Med. Sci. 2016;12:271-5.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Etea TD. Mother's Perception and Treatment SeekingBbehaviour for Childhood Diarrhea in Dendi District, West Shoa, Ethiopia. Global J Med Public Health. 2014;3:45-67.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Sarker AR, Sultana M, Mahumud RA, Sheikh N, Van Der Meer R, Morton A. Prevalence and health care-seeking behavior for childhood diarrheal disease in bangladesh. Glob Pediatr Health 2016;3:2333794X16680901.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Lee HS. Comparative Study on the Health Information Needs, Seeking and Source Preferences among Mothers Of Young Healthy Children: American Mothers Compared to Recent Immigrant Korean Mothers; 2018. Available from: http://www.informationr.net/ir/23-4/paper803.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 03].  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Kahol P, Thakur M, Gupta A, Saini SK. Prevalence, morbidity and treatment seeking behavior for allergic conjunctivitis in children in a north Indian community. Clin Epidemiol Global Health 2019;7:239-45.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Mittal V, Jagzape T, Sachdeva P. Care Seeking Behaviour of Families for Their Sick Infants and Factors Impeding to Their Early Care Seeking in Rural Part of Central India. J Clin Diagn Res 2018;12:SC08-12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2018/28130.11401. [Last accessed on 2020 May 27].  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Jangra V, Waghmare T, Barekar PV. A Community-Based Study Regarding Awareness of Who Guidelines about 'Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Sleep for Children under 5' with Special Emphasis on Screen Time. Int J Pharm Res 2019;11:1169-72. Available from: https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2019.11.01.207. [Last accessed on 2020 May 27].  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Khatib M, Sinha A, Gaidhane A, Simkhada P, Behere P, Saxena D, et al. A Systematic Review on Effect of Electronic Media among Children and Adolescents on Substance Abuse. Indian J Community Med 2018;43: S66-72. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_116_18. [Last accessed on 2020 May 27].  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kumari P, Vagha J, Palsodkar P. Clinical Profile of Children with Cerebral Palsy. Int J Curr Res Rev 2020;12:S6-9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.31782/IJCRR.2020.SP79. [Last accessed on 2020 May 27].  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Lohiya SB, Damke S, Chaudhary R. Coronavirus Disease (COVID) 2019 in Children – A Short Review. Int J Cur Res Rev 2020;12:172-7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.31782/IJCRR.2020.121726. [Last accessed on 2020 May 27].  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Meshram K, Mourya A, Hinge M, James L, Mankar P. Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge and Practice Regarding Growth Monitoring of Under-Five Children among Anganwadi Workers in the Rural Area of Wardha District. Int J Cur Res Rev 2020;12:20-4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.31782/IJCRR.2020.122310. [Last accessed on 2020 May 27].  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Nimbulkar G, Deolia S, Gupta A, Barde N, Sakhre P, Reche A. Relationship of Parenting Styles and Dental Operatory Behavior in Children. Eur J Molecular Clin Med 2020;7:2011-7.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Patel AB, Bann CM, Garces AL, Krebs NF, Lokangaka A, Tshefu A, et al. Development of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research's Socioeconomic Status Index for Use in the Network's Sites in Low and Lower Middle-Income Countries. Reprod Health 2020;17:1-10. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-01034-2. [Last accessed on 2020 May 27].  Back to cited text no. 34
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Observations and...
Discussion
Conclusions
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed194    
    Printed22    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded20    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]