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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 219-221

Impact of exercises, yoga, and meditation on anxiety and depression during COVID 19 lockdown


1 Department of Community Health Physiotherapy, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Neuro Physiotherapy, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission03-Jul-2020
Date of Decision17-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance28-Jan-2021
Date of Web Publication29-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ashish Bele
Bobhate Layout, Chintamani Nagar, Sindhi (Meghe), Wardha - 442 001, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1319-4534.322618

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  Abstract 


The COVID-19, coronavirus infective disease 2019, is becoming a major problem worldwide. This situation varies from country to country. This virus spreads among 196 counties. It has been reported that considerable majority of cases are from scattering countries. The coronavirus flare up combined with the lockdown has set off an expansion in the cases of anxiety and stress. Careful meditation and exercise have constructive outcomes as adjunctive intervention for depressive and anxiety episodes. The aim of the study was to review the effect of lockdown in COVID 19 on anxiety and depression and how yoga, exercises, and meditation are beneficial to cope up with anxiety and depression. The data were collected from the electronic databases including Google Scholar, Springer publication, World Health Organization guidelines, PubMed, Cochrane, and Journal of Travel Medicine. All the articles were arranged as per the information they have provided and arranged in a systematic way. Exercises, yoga, and meditation are useful in coping with depression and anxiety including stress during the lockdown period. This study concluded that yoga is more beneficial in depression and anxiety along with regular exercises and meditation.

Keywords: Anxiety, COVID-19, depression, exercises, lockdown, meditation, yoga


How to cite this article:
Bele A, Qureshi M, Ghogare A, Singh N, Jethwani D, Gachake A. Impact of exercises, yoga, and meditation on anxiety and depression during COVID 19 lockdown. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2021;16:219-21

How to cite this URL:
Bele A, Qureshi M, Ghogare A, Singh N, Jethwani D, Gachake A. Impact of exercises, yoga, and meditation on anxiety and depression during COVID 19 lockdown. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 23];16:219-21. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2021/16/1/219/322618




  Introduction Top


The COVID-19, coronavirus infective disease 2019, is becoming a major problem worldwide. This situation varies from country to country. This virus spreads among 196 counties. It has been reported that considerable majority of cases are from scattering countries.[1] A COVID-19 was first found in and raised from Wuhan, China, during late December 2019 and is now affecting other countries. There are a number of cases reported in multiple cities of China and spreads through the air travel and migration of people to various countries including Japan, South Korea, Thailand, the USA, Taiwan, France, Italy, Spain, and the UK.[2]

In India, the first case of COVID-19 was found on January 30, 2020, and the source country was China. There has been observed a gradual rise in cases which forced the Government of India for lockdown.[3]

It has been found that there are no specific medicines or vaccines available for COVID-19. The best measure against the COVID-19 spread is social distancing and lockdown.[4],[5]

Since the World Health Organization proclaimed the COVID-19 episode a worldwide pandemic, a huge number of us, even the individuals who have not been tainted by the infection, will decide to isolate in our homes for the forthcoming weeks. Inverted itinerary items, uncertain seclusion, alarm over rare resources, and data overburden could be a formula for unchecked anxiety and isolation feelings.[6]

The coronavirus flare-up combined with the lockdown has set off an expansion in the cases of anxiety and stress. Anxiety, frustration, insomnia, depression, mood swings, delusions, fear, panic attacks, loss or sudden increase of appetite, and suicidal tendencies, have become major common problems during the lockdown period. Dr. Priyanka Sahasrabhojanee, who is part of the PSG's initiative, said the lockdown has compounded the state of individuals who as of now experience the ill effects of mental sicknesses. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be an aftermath of this emergency, the same number have lost their positions (jobs), and they should require a great deal of efforts to get back on their feet.[7]

Over the week, Professor Richard Bentall at the University of Sheffield in their investigation which was done between March 23 and 27, 2020, found that 25% of women and 18% of men displayed clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, 23% of women and 21% of men gave indications of depression, and 15% of women and 19% of men were stressed.[8]

High-energy exercise (i.e., week after week use of in any event 17.5 kcal per kg) and frequent aerobic exercise (i.e., at any rate three to five times each week) reduce depression symptoms more than lower-energy and less frequent exercise. Careful meditation and exercise have constructive outcomes as adjunctive intervention for depressive episodes. For anxiety disorders, exercise and yoga have additionally indicated constructive outcomes, yet there is far less information on the impacts of activity (exercises) on anxiety than for exercises on depression. Tai chi, qi gong, and meditation have not shown that much effectiveness as alternative intervention for anxiety and depression.[9]

Hence, the need of this review article is to provide beneficial information about the effect of lockdown in COVID-19 on anxiety and depression and how yoga, exercises, and meditation are beneficial to cope up with anxiety and depression.


  Materials and Methodology Top


Data source

The data were collected from the electronic databases including Google Scholar, Springer publication, World Health Organization guidelines, PubMed, Cochrane, and Journal of Travel Medicine. All the articles were arranged as per the information they have provided and arranged in a systematic way.


  Results Top


This review article showed that yoga, exercise, and meditation are effective in reducing the anxiety and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown period.


  Discussion Top


This review article provided the information about the effect of lockdown during COVID-19 breakdown and its impact on anxiety and depression and how yoga, exercises, and meditation are beneficial to cope up with it.

The latest update was on April 16 at 5.30 a.m. by the Government of India, total COVID-19 active cases are 10,477, total cured/discharged cases are 1488, total deaths are 414, and one patient gets migrated.[10]

The United States of America has reported >236,339 COVID-19 cases, the highest in the world, and over 5000 people have died due to the disease.[11]

Day by day, the COVID-19-affected cases are increasing and the Government of India extended the 21-day lockdown period to 40 days and it is necessary for the stoppage of COVID-19 to community spread.

Basu-Ray from Memphis Veterans Hospital said when individuals are compelled to disconnect and remain in their homes like in this COVID-19 pandemic, it made a lot of depression and anxiety. He said both depression and anxiety have unfavorable impacts genuinely and can really cut down your insusceptibility to viral infections.[11]

Professor Bentall at the University of Sheffield in their study found that those aged fewer than 35 years, living in a city, living alone or with youngsters, with lower livelihoods, with well-being conditions, and those whose wages had been hit by the pandemic had higher rates of depression and anxiety. The individuals who felt that they had a place with their neighborhood and who believed their neighbors had lower levels of depression and anxiety. The study additionally found that 32% of individuals had just lost salary because of the pandemic, yet when solicited to rate their level from stress over the money related effect so far on a scale of 0 (not worried at all) to 10 (extremely worried), the average response was around six.[8]

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, throughout the years saw that a panic attack or lengthy periods of anxiety can stimulate depression in people. Although nobody knows why, most of the anxiety disorders include social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessivecompulsive disorder, phobias, and PTSD accompanied by depression.[12]

Basu-Ray also said a large part of yoga is breathing procedures and meditation that enhance stress.[11]

Exercise and yoga, then again, have various studies showing their adequacy, which is now and again equivalent to standard treatments and consistently superior to treatment like placebo. Exercise and yoga are tried as options in contrast to standard pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment approaches and show constrained however positive information as complementary interventions in combination with such standard treatment approaches.[9]

Saeed et al. expressed that activity appears to be generally useful for treatment-resistant depression, unipolar depression, and PTSD. Yoga as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy it encourages treatment of depression. As an adjunctive therapy, it encourages the treatment of anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder. Tai chi and qi gong might be useful as adjunctive treatment for depression, yet the impacts are conflicting. As monotherapy or an adjunctive therapy, meditation has positive effects on depression, and its effects can last for 6 months or more.[13]

Patricia Walden, a senior Iyengar Yoga teacher, and the physician Timothy McCall, author of Yoga as Medicine, who together teach workshops on yoga and depression, categorize depression based on the gunas rajas, tamas, and sattva, which are the three types of energy that manifest as behavioral patterns according to ancient yogic texts. Rajas is regularly described as powerful and excitable; tamas by inactivity, sloth, fear, or confusion; and sattva as pure “beingness” and lucidity, condition of balance. Walden and McCall refer to an unsettled, anxiety-induced depression as “rajasic” and a progressively lazy, despondent depression as “tamasic.” They have also suggested Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward-Facing Dog Pose), Paschimottanasana to Halasana (Seated Forward Bend to Plow Pose), Prasarita Padottanasana (Wide-Angle Standing Forward Bend), Dwi Pada Viparita Dandasana (Two-Legged Inverted Staff Pose), Urdhva Dhanurasana (Upward-Facing Bow Pose), Balasana (Child's Pose), Salamba Sarvangasana (Shoulderstand), and Halasana (Plow Pose).[12]

Sharma M. et al. (2017) concluded that yoga is a genuinely new treatment or practice used for more than mind-body wellness in. Truth be told, yoga is being utilized increasingly more as an elective type of treatment for improving numerous conditions. One way that yoga is utilized is in people with depressive symptoms.[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18]


  Conclusion Top


Exercises, yoga, and meditation are useful in coping with depression and anxiety including stress during the lockdown period. This study concluded that yoga is more beneficial in depression and anxiety along with regular exercises and meditation. This article may be beneficial for the people those who are at home during such pandemics in the lockdown period. Future studies should incorporate yoga, exercises, and meditation to combat the psychological problems which occur due to such pandemic situation during the lockdown period.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
WHO. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 72; 1 April, 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200401-sitrep-72-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=3dd8971b_2. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bogoch II, Watts A, Thomas-Bachli A, Huber C, Kraemer MU, Khan K. Potential for global spread of a novel coronavirus from China. J Travel Med 2020:27;taaa011.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Johns Hopkins University. How the New Coronavirus Spread | Coronavirus Pandemic News. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/timelinee-china-coronavirus-spread-200126061554884.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Advancing the Right to Health: The Vital Role of Law Chapter 10; Apr 12, 2020. p. 151-64. Available from: https://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/health-law/chapter 10.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
WHO. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 70; March 30, 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200330-sitrep-70-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=7e0fe3f8_2. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Gupta A. Covid-19 Lockdown Guide: How to Manage Anxiety and Isolation during Quarantine. Silver Spring: Anxiety and depression association of America; 2020.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Goa: Coronavirus Lockdown Triggers Rise in Mental Health Issues. Available from: https://www.deccanherald.com/national/west/goa-coronavirus-lockdown-triggers-rise-in-mental-health-issues-823707.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Bentall R. Depression and anxiety spiked after lockdown announcement, coronavirus mental health study shows. UK: The University of Sheffield; 2020.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Saeed SA, Antonacci DJ, Bloch RM. Exercise, yoga, and meditation for depressive and anxiety disorders. Am Fam Physician 2010;81:981-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
#IndiaFightsCorona COVID-19. Government of India. Available from: https://www.mygov.in/covid-19. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Basu-Ray I. Is lockdown making you anxious and depressed? Yoga will help Calm your Nerves & Boost Immunity. The Economic Times magazine; 2020.   Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Saeed SA, Cunningham K, Bloch RM. Depression and anxiety disorders: Benefits of exercise, yoga, and meditation. Am Fam Physician 2019;99:620-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Lawrence M, Celestino Junior FT, Matozinho HH, Govan L, Booth J, Beecher J. Yoga for stroke rehabilitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;12:CD011483.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Wankhade PA, Mohite PM, Ninanve SV, Patond SK. Appraising Perception and Knowledge of Medical Practioners in Context with Ubiquitous Aspects of Consent. Medico-Legal Update 2019;19:120-5. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-1283.2019.00157.9.[Last accessed on 2020 Feb 18].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Patond S, Mohite P, Ninave S, Pande V. Knowledge about Medicolegal Aspect of Documentation amongst Residents and Faculty-a Cross-Sectional Study. J Indian Acad Forensic Sci 2019;41:117-9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-0848.2019.00032.0. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 18].  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Parmar P, Patond S, Rathod G, Ninave S. Awareness among Intern Doctors about Medical Records and Duty of Doctors in Tertiary Care Hospital, Valsad. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol 2020;14:545-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Parmar P, Patond S, Rathod G, Ninave S. Awareness among Intern Doctors Regarding Privacy and Confidentiality in Medical Practice. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol 2020;14:539-44.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Acharya N, Srivastava T, Acharya S, Shukla S, Dewani D. Role of Mock Drills in Competency Based Post Graduate Medical Education in Managing Emergency Clinical Situation. Eur J Molecular Clin Med 2020;7:1436-47.  Back to cited text no. 18
    




 

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