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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 127-132

Impact of quality of life among teachers after nursing strategy intervention – A quantitative study


1 Department of Mental Health Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Saveetha College of Nursing, SIMATS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Research, SIMATS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission29-Nov-2019
Date of Decision28-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance24-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication29-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
Asst. Prof R Thephilah Cathrine
Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1319-4534.322606

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Teachers are one of the most significant human resources. The qualities and nature of any instructive framework depends generally on their teacher's work. It has been very much reported that educating is one of the most distressing professions in the world. Aims: The aims of this study were as follows: (i) to assess the level of quality of life (QOL) among teachers of private and fully aided schools in posttest for the experimental and control groups and (ii) to determine the effectiveness of nursing strategies on QOL among teachers of private and fully aided schools. Materials and methods: A quantitative research approach with true experimental design including experimental and control groups and pretest–posttest control group design, was adopted for this study. The study focused on the selected schools in Vellore district. Totally 28 participants were selected by consecutive sampling technique with the age of 25–60 years. Based on the inclusion criteria and availability of teachers, they were allocated into control group (n = 14) and experimental group (n = 14). A nursing strategy program by various modules (the nature of stress, cognitive skills, affect skills, and behavioral skills) once a week for 6 weeks was given. Results: We found that the median value in pretest is significantly different from median value in posttest (P = 0.001). This research suggests that nursing strategy interventions are effective and beneficial in all domains of QOL. Conclusion: More help ought to be offered to teachers to improve their QOL and prosperity.

Keywords: Nursing strategies, quality of life, quantitative study, teachers


How to cite this article:
Cathrine R T, Aruna S, Vijayaragahavan R. Impact of quality of life among teachers after nursing strategy intervention – A quantitative study. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2021;16:127-32

How to cite this URL:
Cathrine R T, Aruna S, Vijayaragahavan R. Impact of quality of life among teachers after nursing strategy intervention – A quantitative study. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 16];16:127-32. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2021/16/1/127/322606




  Introduction Top


Teachers are one of the most noteworthy human resources. The qualities and nature of any instructive framework depends generally on their teacher's work. It has been very much reported that educating is one of the most distressing professions in the world. Today, in numerous associations, representatives are not happy with their work, and they are after increasingly significant obligations.[1] The nature of work life is one of the causes of authoritative improvement. It is the blend of the collaboration of science and craftsmanship that contain the social execution and the space of logical disclosure. As of late, the nature of work life has been critical to the point that it tends to be called a scholarly development.[2] A definitive assessment of the personal satisfaction is usually viewed as “fulfillment with life” or bliss. The quality of work life (QWL) centers around improving the work atmosphere with the goal that workers can lead better work life[3] and be progressively cheerful and gainful for the institution.

Teachers will, in general, see certain highlights of their profession that are unsafe to their well-being. In India, the education system has experienced significant changes as of late. In any case, in spite of numerous changes and advancements in the course of the most recent decade, Indian teachers still experience the ill effects of upsetting working conditions.[4],[5],[6],[7]

Various studies have indicated that excessive stress may obviously affect the physical and emotional wellness status of the teachers. It has been accounted for those teachers who have a lower personal satisfaction (quality of life [QOL]) and shorter future.[8] Any issue or deformity in the personal satisfaction of teachers can influence their work-related execution. Lamentably, teachers have been accounted for to have a lower personal satisfaction (QOL) and shorter future because of work-related pressure.[9]

Ryan[10] accepts that most investigations done on the nature of work in the 60s concentrated on brain research of people and their impression of the mechanical condition. He presents that the term “quality of work life” was proposed in an International Conference in New York in 1972 which stressed a job for information in making an intelligent hypothesis on the best way to make better conditions for working life.

The nature of work life accommodates the harmonious relationship among work, nonwork, and family parts of life. At the end of the day, family life and public activity ought not to be stressed by working hours including additional time work, work during badly arranged hour travel, moves, and vacations.[11]

A pilot study is a trial run of the main study. A pilot study was carried out to understand the feasibility of execution of the various phases of the research procedures and to overcome the difficulties during the main data collection. The aims of the pilot study were to take small sample size and (i) to compare the pre- and posttest level of QOL among higher secondary school teachers within and between the control and the experimental groups and (ii) to compare the effectiveness of nursing strategies on QOL among higher school teachers within and between the control and experimental groups.

The nursing strategy intervention in light of these three models endeavor to change and address subjective evaluation and reaction to stretch: (a) to enable the teachers to comprehend the segments of pressure and how pressure works in their lives; (b) to give a structures chance to teachers to learn, practice, and apply the executive systems for change in their lives; and (c) to advance sound techniques for overseeing pressure. Briefly, in the present study, the investigator will make an attempt to assess the effectiveness of nursing strategy interventions and QOL among secondary school teachers. This will help the investigator to achieve a holistic understanding of an individual.


  Materials and Methods Top


Participants

The pilot study was conducted among higher secondary school teachers of private and fully aided schools in Vellore district by random sampling technique using lottery method. The total population of higher secondary school teachers was 21 and 18 in two schools, respectively. A total of 28 participants were selected by consecutive sampling technique based on the inclusion criteria and availability of teachers and were allocated into control group (n = 14) and experimental group (n = 14). The participants were briefed on the information for the purposes of the study; written informed consent and oral consent were obtained from the participants. This study was approved by the Institutional Human Ethics Committee of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (005/09/2018/IEC/SMCH; Dated on September 7, 2018).

Methodology

Step I: On day 1: The purpose of the study was explained to the participants. Informed consent was taken from the participants before starting the study. Demographic variables and QOL were assessed using Walton QWL. Step II: The intervention was administered for a 6-week period with 2-h sessions/week, and there was typically 10 person limit per session. The techniques fall into five categories as shown in [Table 1], so it included five sessions. Session I – The Nature of Stress: Definition of stress, causes, and implications of stress was presented in PowerPoint to the participants. The teachers trained on signs and side effects of pressure and potential wellsprings of stress, and it will create mindfulness that they could adapt to pressure and figure out how such reactions can get maladaptive. Session II – Relaxation training: The procedure for relaxation training was as follows. On the 1st day of relaxation training, the instructor explained and practiced breathing exercises. This part was divided into four sections: (a) relaxing for mindfulness and unwinding, (b) breathing to discharge pressure, (c) breathing to animate readiness, and (d) relaxing for manifestation control. A great many people do not understand which of their muscles are incessantly tense. Progressive relaxation gives a method for recognizing specific muscles and muscle gatherings and recognizing the vibes of pressure and profound relaxation. Four significant classes were secured: (a) progressive muscle relaxation, including straining and loosening up muscles of the legs and arms, shoulders, face, and entire body; (b) stomach breath; (c) contemplation, including envisioning an exceptional spot where one can relax; and (d) extending arms. Relaxation exercises were started in session 2 and then repeated at each session for 20 min, until the end of the sessions (session 5). Session III – Cognitive skills: The problem-solving training was presented in PowerPoint presentation to the participants which included the problem-based scenarios in schools, and the participants were asked to complete the problem-solving task template (listen to the scenario, retell the scenario to the investigator, respond to the questions, generate solutions, implement, and follow up the solution). Session IV – Affect skills: The participants were taught about anger management techniques (recognize, time out, deep breathing, express your anger, think of the consequences, and visualization). Session V – Behavioral skills: The participants were prepared in assertiveness and time management. The sessions ended with an exchange of the strategies that teachers used to finish the undertaking and how ways to deal with time the executives may limit or build pressure.
Table 1: Session activity module.

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The last session audited the stress management techniques. The investigator gave an outline of how the various procedures sway the communication reaction modalities and of their consequences for emotional wellness. This action was led utilizing the psycho-instructive procedure.

Step III: At the end of 6 weeks of intervention, posttest was done to both the groups (control and experimental) using the same tool with the same procedure.

Statistical analysis

The data were expressed as mean ± standard error and as frequency distribution. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used for the comparison of means of the control and experimental groups. Chi-square was not done as the sample size was less. A probability of 0.05 or less was taken statistically significant. The analysis was carried out using SigmaPlot 13 (Systat Software Inc., San Jose, California, USA).

Ethical clearance

This study was approved by the Institutional Human Ethics Committee of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (005/09/2018/IEC/SMCH; Dated on September 7, 2018).


  Results Top


[Table 2] shows the description of higher secondary school teachers according to their demographic variables in the control and experimental groups.
Table 2: Frequency and percentage distribution of demographic variables among higher secondary school teachers in experimental group and control group (n=14)

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[Table 3] shows a comparison of pretest and posttest scores of QOL domain in both the control and experimental groups: The median values of control group pretest, control group posttest, experimental group pretest, and experimental group posttest were 12, 17, 19, and 23, respectively. The medians of control group pretest and experimental group pretest were showed a statistically significant change in work environment, development of human capacities, growth and security, social integration, constitutionalism, total life space, and social relevance (P = 0.001) by Mann–Whitney rank-sum test (unpaired test). After the intervention, the control posttest and experimental posttest median values were showed a statistically significant change in adequate and fair compensation (P = 0.001) by Mann–Whitney rank-sum test and did not show a significant change in work environment, development of human capacities, growth and security, social integration, constitutionalism, total life space, and social relevance. The median control pretest and posttest were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test (paired test) which did not show a statistically significant change (P = 0.089). The median values of experimental group pretest and posttest were also compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test which showed a statistically significant change in work environment, development of human capacities, growth and security, social integration, constitutionalism, total life space, and social relevance (P = 0.001) and no significant change in adequate and fair compensation. It reveals that the intervention is effective and beneficial in all domains of QOL except in few parameters among the experimental group.
Table 3: Comparison of quality of life in both control and experimental groups in pre-and post-test

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  Discussion Top


The main objective was to study the effectiveness of nursing strategies on QOL among teachers of private and fully aided schools. The outcomes in this study indicated that the marvel of teacher's burnout and stress is a significant issue that should be underlined before the impacts lead the teachers to troubles.[12] Quality of work in life is about workplace, compensate, hierarchical responsibility, acknowledgment, participator administration, work–life balance, welfare offices, appropriate complaints dealing with, work fulfillment, and others. A high caliber of work life can give a result in better hierarchical execution, adequacy, and ingenuity. QWL additionally influences the social responsibility.[13] This is on the grounds that QWL can improve the family life just as work life of the person.

The present pilot study findings showed that the nursing intervention was effective on QOL among teachers. It was observed that there is a significant reduction in stress after the administration of assertiveness training in the experimental group. This finding was consistent with the study which showed that the quasi-experimental study was conducted on high school students of Isfahan in the academic year 2012–2013. Assertiveness training was completed on the experimental group in 8 sessions; following 2 months, posttest was done on both the groups. Statistical tests such as independent t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square test, and the Mann–Whitney test were utilized to decipher and examine the information. The result of the present study shows that assertive training in secondary students diminishes their tension, stress, and gloom. It is exceptionally suggested that such projects be done among secondary teachers.[14]

Work–life equalization is a basic perspective to upgrade teacher viability and fulfillment with regard to student learning. It has been demonstrated over and over that a decent nature of work–life parity results in the health of the staff and furthermore improved student conduct.[15] The present study examined the effectiveness of relaxation training on all domains of QOL and revealed that the experimental group felt overall good QOL, and there was a significant difference in QOL between the experimental and control groups. In particular, the investigator analyzed the adequacy of RT on by and large saw pressure, saw work pressure, and life fulfillment. Two hundred and twenty-four teachers from 36 urban primary schools in New York City with primarily low-income/high-risk students were randomly assigned to receive instruction via a program called Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE), a 30-hour mindfulness-based training for teachers spread out over a four-month period. The program included preparing in careful mindfulness, stress decrease, and feeling abilities pointed basically at expanding teacher well-being instead of improving educating. Teachers provided details regarding their degrees of prosperity, care, and trust in their showing capacity, physical well-being, and mental well-being before and after the program.[16]

Ramezani[17] examined the connection between principals' personal satisfaction and their exhibition in secondary schools of the city of Hamedan in Iran and reasoned that if the quality of working life builds, execution will improve. Shahrashob[18] did his proposal on the “connection between QWL and hierarchical responsibility among secondary teachers in Gonbad Kavus city in Iran.” The discoveries showed that there was a positive relationship.

After the nursing strategies, teachers indicated essentially higher area in QOL scores after preventive intervention, in both the control and experimental groups, demonstrating that these exercises positively affected the members' lives.

The pilot study showed that there was an improvement in the QOL at the end of the intervention. The experimental group showed more effectiveness compared to the control group. In the present study, statistical analysis was carried out using the Mann–Whitney rank-sum test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No adverse effect was found in the study. However, there was no statistically significant in few parameters of QOL. It might be probably due to small sample size. This pilot study was found feasible for the main study. Participants were very co-operative throughout the study. Hence, modification was done in the sample size, physiological parameters such as blood pressure and body mass index, and blood investigations such as serum cholesterol, serum albumin, and fasting blood sugar in main study data collection were included after discussing with the experts.


  Conclusion Top


The present study shows that the teachers with high emotional well-being have very high QOL and the teachers with low emotional well-being have less QOL. This study demonstrated that teachers with high well-being oversee well with their intrapersonal and relational connections. The teachers with low emotional well-being need to upgrade and create different techniques to oversee and raise their personal satisfaction. More help ought to be offered to teachers to improve their QOL and prosperity. It is reasonable to give legitimate recreational exercises to teachers and their families.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to appreciate participating teachers for their cooperation.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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