|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 454-461
Early complications in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery: An observational study
Imran Ali M. Khan, Anil Patwardhan
Department of Cardiac Vascular Thoracic Surgery, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||01-May-2017|
|Date of Acceptance||02-May-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||1-Feb-2021|
Dr. Imran Ali M. Khan
Department of Cardiac Vascular Thoracic Surgery, Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Sawangi, Wardha - 442 004, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Rheumatic fever(RF) & Rheumatic Heart disease(RHD) present a problem in all parts of the world especially in developing countries. In India RHD accounts for 12%-65% hospital admissions related to cardiovascular disease. It is the most common cause of Mitral valve disease with associated morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve replacement (MVR) is the surgical treatment when conservative approach fails.Mitral stenosis(MS), Mitral regurgitation (MR) or both MS+MR are main indications for MVR. Material and Method: Despite a rise in the rate of success of total valve replacement, the procedure has been associated with complications inherent to prosthesis as well as to any intra cardiac procedure. Majority of authors have defined complications occuring within thirty days in post operative period as early complications. Observations and Results: In this observational study of 85 patients at a rural cardiac surgery center, who underwent MVR for Mitral valve disease with concomittant Maze-III procedure(modified) for the surgical ablation of Atrialfibrillation (AF) if present, the early complications observed were General complications( AF, Post operative excessive bleeding, haemolysis,Neurological-psychiatric-Thromboembolic complications, wound infection,respiratory complications, Renal complications,prolonged inotropic support& Mechanical ventillation, Prolonged hospital stay & early mortality and Prosthesis specific complications of Paravulvular regugitation( PVR), Obstruction to valve by thrombus,valve endocarditis. Conclusion: AF was the most common post operative complication observed in 24.7% patients,Acute delirium(psychosis) was seen in 21.17% patients,prolonged hospital stay(more than 10 days) was observed in 17.7% of patients, prolonged inotropic support was needed in 12.9% patients, pulmonary complications were observed in 10.5% patients. The rate for other isolated complications was less than 10% each. Overall mortality rate was 1.17%. Prosthetic Valve related complicaio.
Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, cardiopulmonary bypass time, closed mitral commissurotomy, mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis, mitral valve replacement, modified Maze III, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, paravalvular regurgitation, postanesthetic care unit, rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, Wilkin's score
|How to cite this article:|
Khan IA, Patwardhan A. Early complications in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery: An observational study. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2020;15:454-61
|How to cite this URL:|
Khan IA, Patwardhan A. Early complications in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery: An observational study. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 24];15:454-61. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2020/15/3/454/308574
| Introduction|| |
In India, rheumatic heart disease (RHD) accounts for 12%–65% of hospital admissions related to cardiovascular disease. A recent study by Yadav et al. has shown that in India, the prevalence of rheumatic fever/RHD is 4–6/1000 population.
It is the most common cause of mitral valve disease rendering it incapable of performing its optimal functions affecting the heart adversely with associated morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve replacement (MVR) is the surgical treatment when conservative approach fails. Indications for MVR are mitral stenosis (MS), mitral regurgitation (MR), MS + MR, nonfeasibility of percutaneous techniques, nonfeasibility of satisfactory Mitral valve repair, restenosis after closed mitral commissurotomy (CMC), and Wilkins score >8/16.,,,
Despite a rise in the rate of success of total valve replacement, the procedure has been associated with complications inherent to prosthesis as well as to any intracardiac procedure. Majority of authors have defined complications occurring within 30 days in postoperative period as early complications.,
In this study of 85 patients at a rural cardiac surgery center, who underwent MVR for mitral valve disease with concomitant Maze III procedure (modified) for the surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) if present, the early complications observed were as follows:
General complications (AF, postoperative excessive bleeding, hemolysis, neurological-psychiatric-thromboembolic complications, wound infection, respiratory complications, renal complications, prolonged inotropic support and mechanical ventilation, prolonged hospital stay, and early mortality) and prosthesis-specific complications of paravalvular regurgitation (PVR), obstruction to valve by thrombus, and valve endocarditis.
AF is the most common postoperative arrhythmia occurring in about 30% patients and is associated with increased rate of (1) cognitive changes, (2) renal dysfunction, (3) Infection, and (4) longer hospital stay. Excessive postoperative mediastinal bleeding occurs in 2%–6% of cardiac surgery patients requiring re-exploration. Cerebral strokes are the result of emboli to the cerebral circulation.,
For adults, incidence of transient or permanent adverse cerebral outcomes including stroke, encephalopathy, and/or delirium may be as high as 10%–50%.,,
Surgical wound infections are clearly an important contributor to the postoperative morbidity and mortality.,
Postoperative renal insufficiency of some degree develops in 5%–30% of cardiac surgery patients, with approximately 1% requiring dialysis.,
Radiographic evidence of atelectasis is present in most patients in early postoperative period.
Most patients are extubated within 6 h after surgery, and more than 6 h of intubation is an evidence of respiratory insufficiency.
In the current era, fast-track management in cardiac surgery is the gold standard of treatment and postanesthetic care unit rather than the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are being utilized for early extubation and weaning from mechanical ventilation and inotropic support for shifting the patient to step-down unit.
A 30-day postoperative mortality is considered the early mortality.,,
Most of the early deaths are attributable to cardiac failure with risk factors such as old age, MR, left ventricular or atrial enlargement, advanced New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB) and cross-clamp times.
For isolated MVR, the mortality rate is <2%.
Aim and objectives
- To study the clinical profiles of patients for MVR surgery
- To determine the early complications occurring after open cardiac surgery for MVR
- To study the early postoperative mortality in patients undergoing MVR.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present work has been carried out at the Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (CVTS) surgery at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Sawangi Meghe, Wardha, Maharashtra.
This is a cross-sectional observational study of 85 patients (both males and females) undergoing MVR surgery at the department of CVTS, during the period December 15, 2012–August 15, 2014.
Data were collected from the medical records of the patients (outpatient department [OPD] and indoor) and operation theater records.
(1) All patients of RHD involving mainly the mitral valve, with or without AF, requiring MVR or MVR with concomitant Maze procedure, (2) Wilkins score >8/16, (3) presence of LA thrombus, (4) requiring tricuspid repair, (5) patients of restenosis of mitral valve after CMC (by thoracotomy), (6) emergency MVR with cardiac failure with normal renal function, and (7) emergency MVR for the complications arising out of balloon mitral Valvuloplasty.
(1) Double valve replacement, (2) coronary artery disease, (3) Redo sternotomy, (4) presence of other intracardiac lesions, and (5) presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), renal dysfunction, infection, stroke, raised prothrombin time-internationally normalized ratio (PT-INR), and platelet deficiency.
After selection of patients for MVR, who were diagnosed by two-dimensional echocardiogram on OPD basis following measures were taken.
All necessary laboratory and radiological investigations, essential for a cardiac procedure were done. Patients were explained in details about the prosthesis (mechanical/bioprosthesis), postoperative anticoagulation with its complications, dietary restrictions, etc.
All patients underwent median sternotomy MVR with CPB with or without concomitant modified Maze III procedure utilizing radiofrequency bipolar energy plus CryoProbe for AF.
All operated cases were kept in ICU for first 2 days. Routine standard investigation. On 2nd postoperative day, anticoagulation started after PT-INR, which is repeated on alternate days.
On 5th day, routine transthoracic echocardiography is done by cardiologist/intensivist, as a routine to assess general cardiac and prosthesis status. Routine tests on 5th day and special tests were carried out as per requirement.
Following variables representing the early postoperative complications following mitral valve replacement were observed and hence studied in the present work
(1) Arrhythmias (AF, Bradycardia, supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), (2) postoperative excessive bleeding (surgical/Coagulopathy) (>4–5 ml/kg/h), (3) hemolysis (Hb% <8 g%), (4) neuropsychosis and thromboembolic (neurological + psychiatric and ischemia of limb/organ) under neurological complications such as stroke and under psychiatric-acute delirium., (5) wound complications (infective superficial, deep and noninfective superficial, deep), (6) respiratory complications (parenchymal atelectasis, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax, etc.), (7) renal complications (serum creatinine 1.5 mg/100 ml or more), (8) inotropic support >24 h, (9) mechanical ventilation >24 h, (10) longer hospital stay >10 days due to any or combination of above factors, and (11) anticoagulation-related complications.
(1) PVR or leak (2) obstruction due to thrombus or valve endocarditis.
Standard statistical analysis was done. Collected data were depicted in tabulated form.
The Institutional Ethics Committee of DMIMSDU has approved the Research work proposed to be carried out at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi(M), Wardha. Date: 15th Sept 2012 with Reference no DMIMS(DU)/IEC/2012/512.
| Observations and Results|| |
In total, 85 patients have undergone MVR surgery. Out of these, 65 (76.47%) were female and 20 (23.53%) were male [Table 1] (Age: 5 years to over 50 years).
|Table 1: Gender distribution of patients undergoing mitral valve replacement|
Click here to view
[Table 2] and [Table 3] show general and valve-related postoperative complications, respectively, in patients undergoing MVR surgery. Postoperative arrhythmias were the most prominent early complication and mostly consisted of significant AF. AF was observed in 24.7% patients, and other insignificant self-limiting arrhythmias of short duration consisting of SVT and bradycardia were observed in 5.8% of patients. Significant postoperative bleeding was observed in 5.8% (five patients). Thromboembolic/neuropsychosis complications were observed in 22 patients, of which 2.35% (two patients) had stroke (hemiplegia), 1.17% developed ischemia of limb in the form of gangrene of toes, and 21.17% (18) showed psychosis (acute delirium). Postoperative surgical wound complications were observed in 7% (6) patients. Hemolysis was seen in 7% (6) patients. Pulmonary complications comprising pleural and parenchymal lesions were present in 10.5% (9) patients. Prolonged stay in the ICU (more than 3 days) and consequently in hospital (more than 10 days) was observed in 17.7% (15) patients. Use of positive inotropic support of more than 24 h was seen in 12.9% (11) patients. Renal complications in the form of renal insufficiency with postoperative raised serum creatinine more than 1.5 were seen in 4.7% (4) patients. There was no complication related to the use of anticoagulants in the postoperative period. Use of mechanical ventilation of more than 24 h was observed in 8.23% (8) patients. The overall postoperative mortality was 1.17% (one patient). As far as valve-specific complications were concerned, they were observed in two patients (2.35%) as mild PVR/leak during the hospital stay. No patient had valve obstruction due to thrombus or valve endocarditis. No other valve-related events were noted.
|Table 3: Prosthetic valve-related complications observed in postoperative period|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
In this study of 85 patients who underwent MVR, 65 (76.4%) were female and 20 (23.6%) were male patients as per Table 1. The complications observed are depicted in Table 3. These observations can favorably be compared with the study of 99 patients done by Knott, who found overall rate of AF 32%, mortality 4%, and similar complications such as prolonged use of ventilators and thromboemboli, renal insufficiency, and strokes.
Michelena et al. and majority of researchers found that AF is the most common arrhythmia in both males and females. Supraventricular arrhythmias, especially AF, are noted in about 25% of patients. It is usually benign. In a large study of 4657 patients by Kaireviciute et al., who have undergone valvular surgery AF was found in 33%–49%. Patients.
Postoperative arrhythmia was observed in 26 (30.58%) patients in the present study as depicted in Table 3. The overall incidence of arrhythmia including AF is in consistency with the majority of reports.,,,,
The most prominent arrhythmia in the present study was AF which was found in 21 (24.7%) patients who have undergone MVR surgery. This is similar to percentage of AF reported in above and a majority of studies available in literature. There were 41 patients (48.23%) who had preoperative AF and underwent concomitant Maze procedure for surgical ablation of AF.
A proposed mechanism such as pericardial inflammation, autonomic imbalance during the postoperative period, excessive production of catecholamines, and fluid shift with resultant changes in volume and pressure is attributed to the development of AF.,
In the present study, the most important risk factors are advanced age, valvular heart disease itself leading to enlarged left atrium, preexisting AF in 57.14% patients, and surgical trauma to left atrium in all cases.,
Rheumatic valvular heart disease is commonly associated with AF which is the most common type of supraventricular arrhythmia. Cardiomyopathy due to tachycardia, systemic thromboembolism (stroke, peripheral ischemic), and altered life pattern are the results of AF.,,
AF is an independent risk factor for morbidities such as stroke, heart failure, or death.,
The risk of thromboembolic complications is approximately five to six times that of the population in sinus rhythm in chronic AF without rheumatic lesions, but the risk is about 17 folds in patients with RHD.,
Concern is raised when the mediastinal tube output exceeds 4–5 ml/kg/h during first few hours after operation. Efforts must be made to determine the presence or absence of treatable conditions (e.g., coagulopathy) and whether re-exploration is needed. Mediastinal bleeding is categorized as surgical or medical (due to coagulopathy).
Re-exploration for bleeding is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.,
There should be a low threshold for returning the patient to operating room early using the guidelines.
Early exploration can (1) minimize the use of multiple transfusions associated with high risk of respiratory and renal failure, sepsis, and death and (2) lower the risk of wound complications.,
Nonsurgical (microvascular bleeding) after cardiac surgery using CPB is a multifocal problem.
The central mediator in the process of clot formation is the generation of thrombin which acts to convert fibrinogen to fibrin, the basic building block of clot.
CPB also induces systemic inflammatory reaction, which opens up various pathways and destabilizes homeostasis including blood clotting.,
In the present study, the postoperative bleeding was observed in five (5.85%) patients. This is in consistency with the other studies.,,
In all the cases, the bleeding was turned out to be due to coagulopathy and none required re-exploration.
In the present study, the significant hemolysis (Hb < 8 g%) was observed in six (7%) patients necessitating blood transfusion in the postoperative period. This is in consistency with the majority of studies where a hematocrit below 22%–25% (Hb% <8) was considered a threshold for transfusion.,,
Maraj et al. and other researchers showed that the primary mechanism and most common cause of hemolytic disease in patients with prosthetic heart valves are mechanical trauma to erythrocytes and paraprosthetic valvular regurgitation.,
Neurological (neuropsychosis)/thromboembolic complications
In our series, we found cerebral stroke leading to hemiplegia in 2 (2.35%) patients. This is on the lower side in comparison with the reports of various authors.
McKhann et al. and Newman MF et al. and various other researchers in their studies reported 10%–50% incidence.,,
Advanced age, DM, HT, female gender, cerebrovascular disease, previous cardiac surgery, emergency surgery, LA thrombus, and lack of careful De-airing are common risk factors for the development of stroke. Other recognized factors in adults are atherosclerotic disease of ascending aorta, increased CPB time, use of hemofiltration, and high blood transfusion.,,,,,,,
The incidence of stroke in the present study is significantly low as compared to other studies (10% and above). Risk factors were the presence of AF and thrombus in one patient and AF and female gender in other patients. These findings are comparable with various studies reported.,,,
One female (1.17%) patient had lower limb ischemia and developed gangrene of toes in the postoperative period. She also had AF in the postoperative period. It was not ascertained whether it was compartment syndrome leading to ischemia. Prolonged groin cannulation might be the cause.
Acute delirium (psychosis)
Psychiatric problem (acute delirium) is a transient syndrome with impaired cognitive functions, reduced consciousness, and ability to maintain attention or hyperactiveness with combative loud behavior or quite behavior. It is a frequent postoperative problem found in 3%–50% of patients of cardiac surgery.
Factors associated with the development of delirium include prior stroke or TIA, cerebrovascular disease, advanced age, preoperative cardiogenic shock, AF, DM, emergency surgery, postoperative blood transfusions, and low cardiac output. In this study, acute delirium or psychosis was found in 18 patients (21.17%). All the patients showed hyperactivity and combative loud behavior. All developed the complication on the next day of operation in ICU. This finding is in line with that reported by Koster et al. (3%–5%) and others.,
Mistiaen et al. categorized respiratory failure, pneumonia, atelectasis under pulmonary complications and effusions, pneumothorax, empyema, and hemothorax under pleural complications.
The etiology of atelectasis is multifactorial: (1) conditions leading to hypoventilation, (2) conditions causing increased secretions, and (3) conditions causing abnormal clearance.
Pleural effusion is evident in up to 50% cases.
In a largest reported series, large effusion occupying 25% of hemithorax was reported in <1% patients.,
In this study, the respiratory complications (parenchymal + pleural) were 10.5% (9/85) patients. Five patients had atelectasis (5.8%]) and four developed pleural effusion (4.2%) in the postoperative period. There was no mortality observed. Similar findings were reported by Mistiaen et al. of 6% and 5% for pulmonary and pleural complications, respectively. This is within the range as reported various studies.,
Sternal wound complications occur infrequently with an estimated incidence of 1%–5%, with a substantial morbidity and mortality. Minor complications include skin separation, soft tissue seroma, and infection without bone involvement. They are managed conservatively.
Major complications include sternal dehiscence (presence of peculiar click sound, discharge, unexplained fever, and leukocytosis), mediastinitis, and sternal osteomyelitis. These occur in 0.8% cases where closure with wires was done and in 0.9% cases when closure with Dacron was done.,,
The predisposing factors for sternal complications are pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors.,
Preoperative factors were obesity, diabetes, COAD, radiation, immunosuppressed state, renal failure, etc.
Intraoperative factors were strict asepsis, proper hemostasis with discriminate use of electrocautery, precise midline sternotomy, meticulous atraumatic surgical technique, proper choice of closure material, and avoidance of prolonged operative time.
Postoperative factors were prolonged ventilator support, postoperative external cardiac compressions, and re-exploration for bleeding.
In the present study, none of the major wound complications was observed. Minor complication of serous discharge occurred in six patients (7%), all female in the age group between 40 and 50 years. This percentage nearly tallies with the occurrence reported in various series. Soakage was observed after 72 h. Culture and sensitivity reported nil for organism. They were managed conservatively. No patient was obese or diabetic or had renal insufficiency.
preoperative renal dysfunction is a major determinant of both operative and long-term mortality after cardiac surgery. Even patients with mild preoperative renal insufficiency are more likely to experience acute kidney injury (AKI) afterward with a compromised short- and long-term outcomes.
Renal dysfunction is commonly defined as serum creatinine more than 1.5 mg/dl.
Etiology: The mechanisms include (1) renal hypoperfusion from low flow, (2) low-pressure nonpulsatile perfusion, (3) hemodilution, (4) hypothermia, (5) Systemic inflammatory response, (6) low cardiac output state, (and 7) intense peripheral vasoconstriction related to the use of alpha agents. The kidneys autoregulate and maintain RBF and GFR.
However, a protracted period of ischemia will eventually cause tubular cell injury also called acute tubular necrosis or AKI.
Brown et al., Palomba et al., Thakar et al., and Mehta et al. concluded that the following risk factors are determinants for the development of postoperative renal insufficiency.
Risk factors for renal dysfunction
(1) Advanced age, (2) female gender, (3) DM, (4) Leukocytosis, (5) congestive heart failure, (6) hypertension, (7) emergency surgery, (8) NYHA Class III-IV, (9) CPB time more than 120 min, (10) nonwhite Race, (11) mitral valve surgery, (12) COPD, (13) severe anemia, and (14) re-operation.,
The use of CPB for coronary artery bypass graft may result in more postoperative renal impairment as compared to conventional “off-pump” procedures.,
Several studies suggest that the use of CPB prime of whole blood and high plasma Hb% level (more than 40/dl) during and early after CPB increases the risk of acute renal failure.
Postoperative renal insufficiency of some degree develops in 5%–30% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Approximately 1% require postoperative dialysis.
In the present study, renal dysfunction occurred in 4.7% (4/85) of patients undergoing MVR. None required dialysis. There is no significant gender and age difference in the occurrence of renal dysfunction in this study. The overall incidence of renal dysfunction is in agreement with the incidence reported by Swaminathan et al. and Ryckwaert et al.
All the patients were treated by physician and no specific therapy was instituted. Before discharge, the serum creatinine levels returned to normal.
Preoperative risk factors were mitral valve surgery, NYHA-III-IV status, and nonwhite race.
Prolonged Intensive Care Unit and hospital stay
(ICU stay more than 48 h and hospital stay more than 10 days).
Advanced age, NYHA class above II, COPD, and increased cross-clamp time more than 90 min may be the reasons for longer stay of patients in ICU.
In the present study, the average length of ICU stay was 2.63 days (67 patients [78%] - 2 days and 18 patients [22%] - 5 days). Moreover, in majority 82% of cases, length of hospital stay was up to 10 days.
The length of hospital stay was 10 days in 70 (82.3%) patients and more than 10 days in 15 (17.7%) patients. Seventy (82.35%) patients were discharged within 10 days after operation and 15 (17.65%) stayed longer than 10 days in hospital due to various complications.
These observations are similar to reports available in literature.,
In our study, we found mild paravalvular leak in two patients (2.35%).
Our incidence is within the range reported by Jindani et al. and Kastor et al. and others who blamed infection, friable annular tissue, annular calcification, use of monofilament sutures, Marfan syndrome, surface cutout, as possible contributory factors in 79% cases of paravalvular regurgitation in patients of MVR.,
Joint Task Force agreed to the fact that replacement of a diseased heart valve with a prosthetic valve exchanges the native disease with prosthesis.,
(Mortality during the stay and within 30 days of operation).
Most of the researchers considered mortality under 30 days of operation as early mortality.,
A hospital mortality of 5.7% for isolated MVR has been reported from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' adult cardiac surgery database during 2002–2006.
In the present study, only one patient (i. 18%) died (on the 3rd postoperative day) due to acute cardiac failure. Patient was a female, over 65 years of age, with AF with left atrial enlargement with NYHA class IV as risk factors.,,
This is in agreement with the rate, cause, and risk factors reported by Gilinov et al. and the textbook of cardiac surgery by Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes, fourth edition, vol-12,013.,
| Summary and Conclusion|| |
RHD with its associated complications is common in this part of the country. It is the most common cause of mitral valve disease (MS, MR, or both) in this area.
MVR is the surgical treatment when the native valve cannot be treated conservatively.
The operative approach in all cases in this study was through median sternotomy with CPB as in any other intracardiac procedure.
Valve replacement has been associated with certain complications inherent in the prosthesis; in addition to those encountered in any intracardiac operation, which can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, prolonged ICU and hospital stay, and the cost of treatment.
Complications occurring within first 30 postoperative days were defined as early complications. In this study, these complications were arrhythmias, excessive postoperative mediastinal, bleed, thromboembolic/neuropsychosis, sternal wound complications, hemolysis, pulmonary complications, prolonged ICU stay, use of inotropic support, renal- and prosthesis-specific complications, and death.
Postoperative arrhythmia was observed in nearly one–third of operated patients (30.5%), and out of these patients, 21 patients had AF.
AF was the most prominent early postoperative Arrhythmia observed in about one-fourth cases (24.7%) studied in this series. Acute delirium (Psychosis) was the next important complication associated with central nervous system observed in 21.17% patients in association with various other complications, leading to prolonged stay in the hospital for ten patients. No mortality was observed in association with acute delirium.
Eleven patients (12.9%) required the use of inotropic support of more than 24 h.
Pulmonary complications were seen in nine (10.5%) patients, in the form of atelectasis and pleural effusion. These were not associated with a longer hospital stay or any mortality.
Seven patients (8.23%) required mechanical ventilation for more than 24 h and had to stay in ICU for more than 24 h. This includes one death in ICU due to multiple problems.
Only one patient (1.17%) died after surgery due to multiple factors, of which AF was one important factor among them.
Our center is a rural cardiac surgery center and population of patients it caters to, is economically week, and majority of patients are illiterate.
The pattern of postoperative complications in the present study, with reference to incidence and risk factors, does not differ from those reported in various studies in the available literature. In fact, the mortality rate was on the lower side but comparable.
Concomitant Maze procedure along with MVR was found to be very useful in ablating AF.
We conclude that at our rural cardiac surgery center, the pattern of postoperative morbidity and mortality is comparable with other cardiac surgery centers elsewhere, signifying our adherence to standard cardiac surgery practice as prescribed by international guidelines.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]