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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 241-246

Faculty perceptions as part of needs assessment for designing competency-based interprofessional educational model in orthodontics


1 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Pro-Chancellor, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Sawangi Meghe, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission23-May-2020
Date of Decision30-May-2020
Date of Acceptance15-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication21-Dec-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Priyanka Niranjane
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Sawangi (M) Wardha, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_228_20

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  Abstract 


Aim: To present perception of orthodontic faculty as a part of broader needs assessment for designing competency-based interprofessional educational (IPE) model for postgraduates in orthodontics. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was formulated consisting of 12 close- and two open-ended questions to identify profession specific and interprofessional curricular gap in orthodontics using Kwick surveys software and sent to the experts from the orthodontic faculty. Results: The response rate was 51.25%. 69.8% faculty were unaware of the basic concept of IPE, while 76.74% were unaware of interprofessional core competencies. 95.3% perceived that team-working skills are essential for postgraduates, while 88.4% faculty thought that postgraduates require training in interprofessional competencies to provide collaborative care. 79.1% agreed that orthodontic postgraduate curriculum needs modification. Ninety-three percent faculty felt that IPE will result in improved communication between health professional students and patients. 83.7% faculty agreed that there is a need to assess the current quality of collaborative care provided by postgraduates to the patients. 95.3% agreed that patient's optimum well-being lies in interprofessional collaborative care offered by different health professionals and that faculty should be trained to deliver IPE. In response to open-ended questions, the faculty suggested different topics under IPE to be included in postgraduate syllabus and cited faculty resistance, overcrowded curriculum, time constraints, and lack of infrastructure to be the main challenges in implementing IPE. Conclusion: This study has given us insight regarding the need for developing a new interprofessional educational model in the specialty of orthodontics from the orthodontic faculty's point of view.

Keywords: Competency based, interprofessional education, orthodontics, postgraduates


How to cite this article:
Niranjane P, Mishra V, Daigavane P, Gilani R. Faculty perceptions as part of needs assessment for designing competency-based interprofessional educational model in orthodontics. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2020;15:241-6

How to cite this URL:
Niranjane P, Mishra V, Daigavane P, Gilani R. Faculty perceptions as part of needs assessment for designing competency-based interprofessional educational model in orthodontics. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 23];15:241-6. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2020/15/2/241/304250




  Introduction Top


In an ever-changing landscape of health education, healthcare professionals need to be interprofessional to provide collaborative patient care and to optimize health outcomes. Interprofessional education (IPE) is defined as occasions when two or more professions learn about, from and with each other to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes (WHO, 2010).[1] The preposition “with, from, and about” emphasizes that for effective interprofessional learning experience, all three must be present and the learning should be essentially interactive. However, despite abundant literature on IPE and both WHO recommendations to integrate IP approach in health professions education, IP collaboration is insufficiently taught in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. To provide comprehensive care to patients, the postgraduate students are required to interact and collaborate with other health professionals. The main challenge that faces IPE is the lack of a strong theoretical approach or model that has been proven for its particular effectiveness in achieving these goals. There is, therefore, a clear need to develop a well-defined curricular educational model, which incorporates profession-specific and interprofessional skills/competencies to inform teaching in this area. There is no evidence in the literature of IPE in the dental specialty of orthodontics. The postgraduate orthodontic curriculum lacks structured and formalized interprofessional educational initiates that will impart the required interprofessional skills/competencies in postgraduates.

As a precondition for the development of competency-based IPE model in the subject of orthodontics for postgraduate residents, it is necessary to introduce teachers and students to IPE and to assess their knowledge, views, and attitude toward IPE, as well as their readiness which is essential as a decisive step toward its implementation in the future. Before developing an IPE curricular model, we considered it useful to determine the need for such initiative.

Overview of needs assessment

A needs assessment is a systematic approach to identify gaps between current and desired performance to make informed decisions.[2] A formal needs assessment is essential before undertaking revision of existing curricula or implementation of a new educational activity. The data obtained through needs assessment can help determine feasibility, guide in designing curriculum, and optimize utilization of resources. An essential step of needs assessment is to elicit the perceptions and inputs of key stakeholders, which will help enhance the likelihood of their endorsement of the program.[3]

The purpose of this article is to present the perception of orthodontic faculty as part of a broader needs assessment that also investigated the perceptions of other stakeholders such as postgraduate students and alumni for designing interprofessional educational model in orthodontics.


  Methods Top


Study design

The study design was a cross-sectional survey. A draft questionnaire survey was formulated to identify profession-specific and interprofessional curricular gap in orthodontics-seeking information to the following questions:

  1. To what extent does the postgraduate curriculum in the subject of orthodontics addresses interprofessional competencies?
  2. What is the current status of postgraduate students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and experience regarding the basic concepts of IPE and interprofessional competencies in the subject of orthodontics?
  3. Do orthodontic postgraduates have sufficient knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be competent to deliver interprofessional collaborative care to their patients?
  4. What are faculty perceptions regarding IPE and interprofessional competencies in the subject of orthodontics?


Data collection

The questionnaire was reviewed by the School for Health Professions Education and Research team for validity and then pilot-tested with five departmental faculty members to assess the time required for completion, language, and user-friendliness. Based on the feedback, the survey questionnaire was modified and finalized. Purposive sampling was used for the study which included experts from the orthodontic faculty who had more than 5 years of academic experience in the specialty. Participation in this study was voluntary, and when the participant submitted their completed responses, it was deemed that informed consent was given. A covering letter informing the purpose of the survey was attached with the invitation to take part in the survey. An online copy of the draft survey was also created using Kwick surveys software, and the link was mailed to the participants. The survey consisted of a total of 14 questions, of which 12 were close-ended seeking response in the form of yes/no and 2 open-ended questions. The study was ethically approved by the institutional review board.

Data analysis

The numerical data were entered in Microsoft Excel. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software (version) (Chicago, Illinois, USA). The responses for open-ended questions were analyzed manually using thematic analysis.

Ethical Approval

Ethical approval for this study (DMIMS(DU)/IEC/2016-17/6242) was provided by the Ethical Committee of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) on 30/12/2016.


  Results Top


Out of 80 faculties to whom the survey was sent, completed surveys were received from 43 orthodontists and the response rate was 43 out of 80 (51.25%) [Table 1] and [Table 2] and [Graph 1] and [Graph 2]. 69.8% of faculty were unaware of the basic concept of IPE, while 76.74% were unaware of interprofessional core competencies in healthcare. Eighty-six percent replied that orthodontic postgraduates currently provide interprofessional/interdisciplinary collaborative care to the patients. 62.8% responded that their postgraduates have sufficient knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be competent to deliver the interprofessional collaborative care to their patients. 95.3% agreed that skills essential for working in team are essential for all postgraduate students. 88.4% faculty thought that the postgraduates require training in interprofessional competencies to provide collaborative care to the patients. 53.5% thought that the postgraduate curriculum in the subject of orthodontics addresses interprofessional competencies in didactic and practical teaching, while 79.1% agreed that the orthodontic postgraduate curriculum needs modification to include IPE to impart collaborative skills to postgraduates. 93% pf faculty felt that IPE will result in improved communication between health professional students and patients. 83.7% of faculty agreed that there needs to assess the current quality of collaborative care provided by postgraduates to the patients. 95.3% agreed that optimum well-being of the patient lies in interprofessional collaborative care offered by different health professionals and that the faculty should be trained to deliver IPE.
Table 1: Analysis of faculty needs assessment

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Table 2: Analysis of faculty need assessment

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  Discussion Top


The perception of faculty regarding IPE is considered as one of the key factors to successfully integrate IPE into healthcare curricula. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of expert faculty in the subject of orthodontics as a part of broader needs assessment for designing competency-based IPE model. Overall the perception of orthodontic faculty toward IPE was favorable. 69.8% of faculty were unaware of the basic concept of IPE while 76.74% were unaware of interprofessional core competencies in healthcare. This finding is consistent with Curran et al., 2007[4] and Hall and Zierler, 2015,[5] who also reported that majority of faculty members were unaware of the basic concept of IPE as well as IPE core competencies. Yune et al.[6] also found that only 14.8% of faculty responded that they knew about IPE. Eighty-six percent of faculty replied that orthodontic postgraduates currently provide interprofessional/interdisciplinary collaborative care to the patients and 62.8% responded that their postgraduates have sufficient knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be competent to deliver interprofessional collaborative care to their patients. The postgraduate residents do engage in collaborative care to their patients as needed, but the present orthodontic curriculum does not incorporates IPE core competencies in didactic and practical teaching. 88.4% of faculty thought that the postgraduates require training in interprofessional competencies to provide collaborative care to the patients. Yune et al. found that the faculty perceived the present competencies of their students to be lower than the level of importance of IPE competencies. However, the faculty in that study perceived the competence of medical, nursing, and pharmacy students.[6] Similarly, Al-Qahtani and Guraya also reported that 72.2% of faculty agreed that “team-working skills are essential for all healthcare students to learn.”[7] 3.5% of faculty thought that the postgraduate curriculum in the subject of orthodontics addresses interprofessional competencies in didactic and practical teaching, while 79.1% agreed that the orthodontic postgraduate curriculum needs modification to include IPE to impart collaborative skills to postgraduates. Alfano strongly emphasized that if the present curriculum cannot accommodate integration of IPE, then change it and recommended to use IPE core competencies as framework.[8] Wilder et al. in the article “is dentistry at risk?” strongly proposed curriculum revision as one of the strategies to advance IPE in dental education.[9] The orthodontic postgraduate syllabus has clearly mentioned that a qualified orthodontist should work collaboratively as part of interdisciplinary team. However, the postgraduate syllabus lacks teaching of collaborative skills both in didactic and in practical teaching. Ninety-three faculty felt that IPE will result in improved communication between health professional students and patients. Health professional students have little experience with interprofessional communication. Lack of effective communication in healthcare teams is associated with medical negligence and negative health outcomes.[10]

Effective communication between healthcare professionals is essential for patient safety. 83.7% of faculty agreed that there is a need to assess the current quality of collaborative care provided by postgraduates to the patients. 95.3% agreed that optimum well-being of the patient lies in interprofessional collaborative care offered by different health professionals. Developing effective teams and redesigning existing systems are critical to achieve care that is patient-centered, effective, efficient, safe, and equitable (IOM, 2001).[11] 95.3% perceived that the faculty should be trained to deliver IPE. Development of faculty to deliver and implement IPE is considered to be a key factor for successful implementation of both IPE and practice. To enable a cultural shift from uniprofessional to multidisciplinary or interprofessional care, training of faculty is essential. A large number of published literature strongly emphasizes that positive attitude of faculty toward the development of IPE initiatives is very essential.

In response to open-ended questions, the faculty suggested few topics in orthodontic curriculum that promotes interprofessional collaboration [Table 4]. These topics will be included while designing the curricular model. When asked about perceived barriers, most of the faculty listed overcrowded curriculum, time scheduling, ego and lack of mutual respect among faculty members, resistance to change and limited interest and attitude of old faculty members, visiting faculties, miscommunication in referrals, and lack of infrastructure [Table 3]. In a survey conducted by ADEA in 2014, it was found that academic calendars and schedules (43.5%) and funding limitations (25%) were the two major perceived barriers for all institutions. Palatta et al. noted that failure of communication within the dental profession and academic silos between dental specialties and other disciplines were the most perceived barriers by the deans of dental schools.[12] Oandasan and Reeves (2005b) also reported that faculty workload, academic scheduling, and logistics, in addition to lack of faculty development and large numbers of adjunct faculties, were perceived to be the main challenges.[13] Similarly, the lack of time in the curriculum, followed by scheduling conflicts and budget limitations, was unanimously perceived to be the principal barrier for IPE implementation.[13],[14]
Table 3: Perceived challenges/barriers that maybe encountered while trying to implement interprofessional education

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Table 4: Topics suggested by faculty to be included under interprofessional education in orthodontic postgraduate syllabus

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  Conclusion Top


The orthodontic specialty has evolved gradually and has seen many challenges and reforms. Besides core content knowledge in the curriculum, the curriculum should include education and training that prepares health professionals to meet the healthcare needs of twenty-first century. Well-planned and designed needs assessment strategies are critical to guide the curriculum and for successful implementation of an educational program. This study has given us insight regarding the need for developing a new interprofessional educational model in the specialty of orthodontics from the orthodontic faculty's point of view. It also provided information about the topics to be included and the perceived challenges and barriers for its implementation.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. Framework for action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice. Geneva (Switzerland): WHO Press; 2010. Available from: http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/framework_action/en. [Last accessed 2010 Nov 26].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Watkins R, Meiers MW, Visser YL. A Guide to Assessing Needs. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Lin M, Santen SA, Yarris LM, Mullan P, Searle N, Rougas S, et al. Development of a training needs assessment for an education scholarship fellowship in emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med 2012;19:1419-24.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Curran VR, Sharpe D, Forristall J. Attitudes of health sciences faculty members towards interprofessional teamwork and education. Med Educ 2007;41:892-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hall LW, Zierler BK. Interprofessional Education and Practice Guide No. 1: Developing faculty to effectively facilitate interprofessional education. J Interprof Care 2015;29:3-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Yune SJ, Park KH, Min YH, Ji E. Perceptions of the interprofessional education of the faculty and the level of interprofessional education competence of the students perceived by the faculty: A comparative study of medicine, nursing, and pharmacy. Korean J Med Educ 2020;32:23-33.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Al-Qahtani MF, Guraya SY. Measuring the attitudes of healthcare faculty members towards interprofessional education in KSA. J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2016;11:586-93.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Alfano MC. Connecting dental education to other health professions. J Dent Educ 2012;76:46-50.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Wilder RS, O'Donnell JA, Barry JM, Galli DM, Hakim FF, Holyfield LJ, et al. Is dentistry at risk? A case for interprofessional education. J Dent Educ 2008;72:1231-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Brock D, Abu-Rish E, Chiu CR, Hammer D, Wilson S, Vorvick L, et al. Interprofessional education in team communication: Working together to improve patient safety. Postgrad Med J 2013;89:642-51.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Palatta A, Cook BJ, Anderson EL, Valachovic RW. 20 years beyond the crossroads: The path to interprofessional education at U.S. Dental Schools. J Dent Educ 2015;79:982-96.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Oandasan I, Reeves S. Key elements of interprofessional education. Part 2: factors, processes and outcomes. J Interprof Care 2005;19 Suppl 1:39-48.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Rafter ME, Pesun IJ, Herren M, Linfante JC, Mina M, Wu CD, et al. A preliminary survey of interprofessional education. J Dent Educ 2006;70:417-27.  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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