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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 61-62

Correlation study between baseline dyspnea index and hospital-associated anxiety and depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – A pilot study


Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Physiotherapy, MAEERs Physiotherapy College, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission15-Apr-2019
Date of Decision22-May-2019
Date of Acceptance15-Jun-2019
Date of Web Publication13-Oct-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jinal Vinod Kothari
Flat Number 6, Ashray Society, Mukund Nagar Near Swargate, Pune - 411 037, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_72_19

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  Abstract 


Context: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a disease characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction that is attributed to either chronic bronchitis or emphysema. Dyspnea is one of the common symptoms of COPD where it is associated with limited physical activity and increased anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression are frequent in patients with COPD and it increases as the severity of disease progresses. This article will serve us to know about the correlation between anxiety and depression with the Baseline Dyspnea Index in COPD Patients. Aims: The aim of this study was to study the correlation of Baseline Dyspnea Index and Hospital-associated anxiety and depression in COPD patients. Settings and Design: Settings-Bahusaheb Talegaon Rural Hospital, Pune Maharashtra, India. Design-Correlation study, Validated Hospital anxiety and depression scale was used along with Baseline Dyspnea Index to check correlation in COPD Patients. Subjects and Methods: This correlation study received institutional ethical approval. All participants according to inclusion criteria coming to the rural hospital were selected. Informed consent was obtained from each participant. Baseline Dyspnea Index and Hospital Anxiety-Depression scale. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis of data was reported, using instant application in that nonparametric test (Spearman's correlation coefficient) was used. Results: The result shows that there was a positive correlation between anxiety and the Baseline Dyspnea Index (functional impairment) in COPD Patients. Whereas there was a negative correlation of depression and the Baseline Dyspnea Index. Conclusions: The present study included COPD patients which state that the Baseline Dyspnea Index has a significant relation with anxiety in which functional impairment has greater significance. Depression does not have a significant relationship with the Baseline Dyspnea Index.

Keywords: Anxiety, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, dyspnea


How to cite this article:
Kothari JV, Jaiswal VC, Ghuman SD, Ghodey SA. Correlation study between baseline dyspnea index and hospital-associated anxiety and depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – A pilot study. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2020;15:61-2

How to cite this URL:
Kothari JV, Jaiswal VC, Ghuman SD, Ghodey SA. Correlation study between baseline dyspnea index and hospital-associated anxiety and depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – A pilot study. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 27];15:61-2. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2020/15/1/61/297991




  Introduction Top


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a disease characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction that is attributed to either chronic bronchitis or emphysema.[1] Dyspnea is one of the common symptoms of COPD where it is associated with limited physical activity and increased anxiety and depression, which leads to decreased health-related quality of life.[2] The purpose of this study was to examine interrelationship among dyspnea anxiety and depression. Since depressive symptoms are the contributing factor for physical performance in COPD.


  Subjects and Methods Top


Design

Correlation study

Validated Hospital anxiety and depression scale was used along with baseline dyspnea in COPD patients.

Participants

Participants diagnosed with COPD for >5 years.[3] Participants of the age group of >35 years.[4]

Procedure

This correlation study received institutional ethical approval. All participants according to inclusion criteria coming to rural hospital were selected. Informed consent was given to all the participants. Baseline dyspnea Index and Hospital Anxiety-Depression scale were used. Baseline Dyspnea Index had three components functional impairment The magnitude of task and Magnitude of Effort.

Outcome measures

Hospital Anxiety-Depression scale and Baseline Dyspnea Index scale were used.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis of data was reported using instant application in that nonparametric test (Spearman's correlation coefficient) was used. This states that the correlation between anxiety and Baseline Dyspnea Index (functional impairment) had a positive correlation which is r = 0.5506. Correlation between anxiety and Baseline Dyspnea Index (Magnitude of Task) had a negative correlation in which r = −0.08501. Correlation between Anxiety and Baseline Dyspnea Index (magnitude of Effort) had a negative correlation in which r = −0.05640. Correlation between depression and Baseline Dyspnea Index (Functional Impairment) had a negative correlation where r = −0.1983. Correlation between depression and Baseline Dyspnea Index (magnitude of the task) had a negative correlation in which r = −0.09227. Correlation between depression and Baseline Dyspnea Index (magnitude of effort) had a negative correlation in which r = −0.2059.


  Results Top


The result shows that there was a positive correlation between anxiety and the Baseline Dyspnea Index (functional impairment) in COPD patients, whereas there was a negative correlation between depression and the Baseline Dyspnea Index.


  Graphs Discussion Top


This study was done to find out the correlation between anxiety and depression with Baseline Dyspnea Index which states that anxiety has a more significant relation because anxiety with depression and COPD create cycle of breathlessness. Breathlessness provokes panic respect and affection to all my esteemed professors for helping me in this venture. I am extremely grateful to my institution for their support. Last but not least, I express my special thanks to all the subjects who participated in this study and gave their full co-operation for the study. When I wish to express my feeling of gratitude, which makes the patient feel more anxious.[5] Due to which physical activity is reduced in such patients and hence, longer duration of stay in the hospital causes anxiety and depression in such patients.[5] Anxiety and depression in patients with COPD are often undiagnosed and rarely treated. It is not easy to diagnose depression in COPD patients because of overlapping symptoms between COPD and depression. Dyspnea and reduced exercise capacity are the predominant mechanisms leading to anxiety and depression. As physiotherapist plays a major role in the management of dyspnea in COPD patients and there is some positive correlation between anxiety and depression with dyspnea so reducing, dyspnea can help in the reduction of anxiety and depression which eventually leads to increase in quality of life.

Acknowledgment

I would like to thank god and my parents for being the guiding star in my life. The poverty of words has never been so profound than now when I wish to express my feeling of gratitude, respect, and affection to all my esteemed professors for helping me in this venture. I am extremely grateful to my institution for their support. Last but not least, I express my special thanks to all the participants who participated in this study and gave their full co-operation for the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Celli BR. ATS standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir Rev 1996;24:932-46.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Anzueto A, Miravitlles M. Pathophysiology of dyspnea in COPD. Postgrad Med 2017;129:366-74.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
van der Molen T, Miravitlles M, Kocks JW. COPD management: Role of symptom assessment in routine clinical practice. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2013;8:461-71.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
To T, Zhu J, Larsen K, Simatovic J, Feldman L, Ryckman K, et al. Progression from asthma to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Is air pollution a risk factor? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016;194:429-38.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Lou P, Zhu Y, Chen P, Zhang P, Yu J, Zhang N, et al. Prevalence and correlations with depression, anxiety, and other features in outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China: A cross-sectional case control study. BMC Pulm Med 2012;12:53.  Back to cited text no. 5
    




 

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Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Graphs Discussion
References

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