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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 338-341

Relationship between intelligence and impulse control among new entrants studying in various medical disciplines


1 Students Guidance Clinic, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Mental Health Nursing, Datta Meghe College of Nursing, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission08-Nov-2019
Date of Decision10-Dec-2019
Date of Acceptance15-Dec-2019
Date of Web Publication16-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rupali Sarode
JNMC, Sawangi (M), Wardha - 442 004, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_175_19

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  Abstract 


Background: Students from various medical disciplines require above-average intelligence to understand all the medical subjects and concepts as it deals with human body and human life. Impulse control (patience) is an absolute virtue of health professional courses. Health professional students are expected to possess good impulse control. Objective of the Study: The objective was to assess the relationship between intelligence and impulse control among new entrants studying in health professional courses. Study Design: This is a correlation study. Population: First-year students, both males and females, from various medical disciplines including MBBS, BDS, BAMS, and B.Sc. Nursing constituted the study population. Sample Size: A total of 400 (50 males and 50 females from each of the four health disciplines) students were selected purposively from Nagpur and Wardha districts of Maharashtra, India. Impulse Control Scale and Culture Fair Intelligence Test were used for data collection. The results showed that impulse control and intelligence are positively correlated (male: r = 0.137,P > 0.05, and female: r = 0.22, P <0.05). For overall participants, the two variables were positively and statistically significantly related (r = 0.173, P <0.05). Conclusion: The findings revealed that the higher the intelligence, greater the impulse control for both male and female new entrants of all the four medical disciplines. Female students showed greater magnitude of positive correlation as compared to male students.

Keywords: Impulse control, intelligence, relationship


How to cite this article:
Sarode R, Tendolkar V. Relationship between intelligence and impulse control among new entrants studying in various medical disciplines. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2019;14:338-41

How to cite this URL:
Sarode R, Tendolkar V. Relationship between intelligence and impulse control among new entrants studying in various medical disciplines. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 11];14:338-41. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2019/14/4/338/289843




  Introduction Top


Health professional courses are highly taxing, demanding more efforts as compared with other professional courses. The nature of course creates a high level of anxiety, depression, burnout, and personal distress. Therefore, students who enter into such highly prestigious yet significantly stressful courses require a good intelligence and good mental health.

These courses are considered as toughest due to long hours of studies, time-bound assignments, seminars, postings in various clinical departments, and examinations, both written and oral. All these make health professional courses more stressful. The entry to these courses leads to many psychological changes in students. Students after completion of HSSC and entrance test take admission in these courses on a merit basis. At this stage, they definitely lack emotional stability, intelligence, patience, keen observation, decision-making, responsibility, patience, empathy, and human values that are the most important qualities one must possess to be a health professional.

Long[1] found that in Singapore, medical students were having superior intellectual state but also secure higher scores on neuroticism.

Students from various medical disciplines require good intelligence to understand all the medical subjects and concepts as it deals with the human body and human life.

Stoddard tried to define intelligence as “the ability to undertake activities that are difficult, complex, and abstract, which are adaptive to a goal and are done quickly and which have social value and which lead to the criterion of something new and different.”[2]

With the above-average intelligence, it is observed that patience is absolutely virtue of students enrolled for health professional courses. The concept of impulse control is often referred to as self-control and sometimes self-regulation. A striking feature of human behavior is that people impose restrictions on themselves, interrupting their own activities and delaying the available gratification. When the delay of gratification is imposed on the individual by external forces, we talk of “frustration,” and when the delay is self-imposed, we call it “self-control.”[3]

Ford and Blumenstein[4] reported that college students with low self-control were at greater risk for reporting binge drinking, marijuana use and when students reported greater opportunities to use and also reported substance use by their friends.

The researcher did not find any studies done on new entrants of all the four disciplines, that is, MBBS, BDS, BAMS, and B. Sc. Nursing together for the two variables, namely, intelligence and impulse control.

Aim and objectives

The present study aims to identify the relationship between intelligence and impulse control among new entrants studying in health professional courses. The objectives of the study are to assess the intelligence and impulse control among entrants of all the four disciplines and to identify the relationship between intelligence and impulse control among entrants of all the four health professional disciplines.


  Methodology Top


Setting of the study

The study was conducted on the new entrants of MBBS, BDS, BAMS, and Basic B. Sc. Nursing from government and private colleges of Wardha and Nagpur districts. There are three medical colleges, three dental colleges, four Ayurvedic medical colleges, and nine nursing colleges in these two districts.

Research design

This is a correlation study.

Population

First-year students, both males and females, from various medical disciplines including MBBS, BDS, BAMS, and B. Sc. Nursing constituted the study population.

Sampling technique

The sampling technique was nonprobability convenient sampling.

Sample size

A total of 400 (50 males and 50 females from each of the four health disciplines) students were selected.

Materials

Culture Fair Intelligence Test

Cattle's Culture Fair Intelligence Test, Scale 2, Form A. This test is nonverbal test fluid intelligence or Spearman's general intelligence.

Impulse Control Scale

Impulse Control Scale (I-C) was developed by Dr. Anjali Shrivastava and Prof. R. H. Nayadoo.[3] It contains 65 statements. It is a paper–pencil self-report measure of impulse control using a Likert-type 5-point scale ranging from “never” (weighted 1) to “always” (weighted 5).

Method of data collection

The proposal of the study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Board. Permission of the colleges' authorities was obtained before recruiting the study participants. The study participants were briefed about the study, and their doubts were clarified before recruiting them for the study.

Data analysis procedure

All the filled-in questionnaires were scored as per the instructions given in the test and in test manuals. These raw data were initially entered by the researcher into a 2007 Microsoft Excel sheet. After this, a printout of raw data was taken and subjected to SPSS 17 version (SPSS Inc. 233 South Wacker Drive, 11th Floor, Chicago, IL, USA 60606-6412) for further analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means and standard deviations for all the variables used in the study were used to describe the demographic profile. A correlation matrix was obtained to examine the association between the variables.

Ethical clearance

Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee of JNMC, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, on 18th March 2019. With ethical clearance no DMIMS(DU)/IEC/2019-20/311


  Results Top


The present study was designed to assess the relationship between intelligence and impulse control among entrants of four health disciplines. The analysis of the data was done as per the objectives of the study. Among the new entrants, 98% were in the 17–19 age groups and 2% were in the 20–22 age groups.

The mean scores of CFIT (intelligence) showed that the MBBS boys (X– = 99.68) scored significantly more on intelligence than BAMS boys (X– = 92.06), BAMS girls (X– = 92.18), nursing boys (X– = 88.66), and nursing girls (X– = 88.10). Similarly, MBBS girls (X– = 97.06) scored significantly greater than nursing boys (X– = 88.66) and nursing girls (X– = 88.10) on intelligence. It was also found that BDS boys (X– = 95.42) had significantly higher scores on intelligence than nursing girls (X– = 88.10). BDS girls (X– = 99.06) also had significantly higher intelligence scores than nursing boys (X– = 88.66) and nursing girls (X– = 88.10). This shows that MBBS boys are more intelligent as compared to BAMS boys, nursing boys, and nursing girls. BDS boys are observed to be more intelligent than nursing girls. Similarly, BDS girls have more intelligence as compared with nursing boys and nursing girls. No significant difference was found between the rest of the groups, that is, BAMS boys, BAMS girls, and nursing boys. It was observed that the highest mean score was obtained by MBBS boys and the lowest mean score was obtained by nursing girls. A graphical representation of the similar pattern, that is, the highest bars for MBBS boys and BDS girls and the lowest bar for nursing girls [Table 1].
Table 1: Means and standard deviation of intelligence for various groups of medical discipline

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The mean impulse control showed that MBBS boys (X– = 213.66) scored significantly higher on impulse control than BAMS girls (X– = 191.56) and nursing girls (X– = 196.80). Similarly, BAMS boys (X– = 208.74) scored significantly higher than BAMS girls (X– = 191.56). Nursing boys (X– = 206.62) scored significantly higher than BAMS girls (X– = 191.56). This reveals that MBBS boys have better impulse control as compared to BAMS girls and nursing girls. Similarly, BAMS boys and nursing boys also have better impulse control as compared to BAMS girls. No significant difference was found between the rest of the groups, that is, MBBS girls, BDS boys, BDS girls, and nursing boys. It can also be seen that the highest mean score was obtained by MBBS boys (X– = 213.66) and the lowest mean score was obtained by BAMS girls (X– = 191.56) on impulse control. The similar pattern, that is, the highest bar for the mean score of MBBS boys and the lowest bar for BAMS girls [Table 2].
Table 2: Means and standard deviation of impulse control for various groups of medical discipline

Click here to view


The correlation between intelligence and impulse control between male and female new entrants (n = 400) of MBBS, BDS, BAMS, and nursing discipline showed a statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.173, P < 0.05). It was also seen that there was a statistically nonsignificant positive correlation between impulse control and intelligence among males (r = 0.054, P > 0.05), but a statistically significantly positive relationship for female new entrants (r = 0.222, P < 0.05). It showed a positive correlation indicating that the higher the intelligence, greater is the impulse control [Table 3].
Table 3: Gender-wise and discipline-wise correlation between impulse control and intelligence in new entrants of medical disciplines

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The aim of the present study is to assess the relationship between intelligence and impulse control among new entrants studying in health professional courses.

There is a positive correlation between impulse control and intelligence, which indicates that the higher the intelligence, greater is the impulse control. These findings are supported by the study of Collet and Vives,[5] who found that there is a inverse relation between impulsivity and intelligence and a positive relation between impulsivity and academic failure. These findings also contradicted those of the study by Lozano et al.,[6] who found that among university students aged 18–37 years, impulsivity was negatively related with intelligence. Another study by Omar (2015) found that intelligence and self-control did not correlate significantly with each other however study conducted in gifted and nongifted students this difference in the findings could be due to the specific age group under study and that specified health professional new entrants in the present study.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14]


  Conclusion Top


The study findings suggest that the higher the intelligence of the students of health professional course, more stable they will be in their lives as doctors and nurses. Intelligence is directly proportional to impulse control. The better the impulse control, better is the behavior, which contributes to the professional growth and practice of the individual. The findings also suggest that to train good-quality doctors and nurses, the applicants for these courses should be screened for intelligence and those with above-average intelligence only should be enrolled.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Long FY. Some intelligence and personality data of Singapore medical students. Singap Med J 1973;14:34-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Freeman FC. Theory and Practices of Psychological Testing. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Mohan Primlani for Oxford and IBH Publishing Company Private Limited; 1965.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Shrivastava A, Nayadoo R. Manual for Impulse Control Scale. Varanasi: Manovaigyan Parikshan Sanstha; 1987.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ford J, Blumenstein L. Self-control and substance use among college students. J Drug Issues 2013;43:56-68.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Collet V, Vives M. How impulsivity is related to intelligence and academic achievement. Span J Psychol 2005;8:199-204.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Lozano JH, Gordillo F, Pérez MA. Impulsivity, intelligence, and academic performance: Testing the interaction hypothesis. Personality and Individual Differences 2014;62:63-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gregory R. Psychological Testing: History, Principles and Application. 4th ed. New Delhi: Pearson Education (Singapore) Private Limited. Indian Branch; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Maranmmar. Intelligence and self-control predict academic performance of gifted and nongifted students. Turk J Giftedness Educ 2013;5:67-81.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Sarode RD, Tendolkar VD. Psychological Pain as Predictor of Impulse Control among BAMS New Entrants: A Correlation Study. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2018;13:171-4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_26_19. [Last accessed on 2019 Jul 12].  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Srivastava TK, Mishra V, Waghmare LS. Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques (FACts) for Better Learning in Pre-Clinical Medical Education: A Controlled Trial. J Clin Diagn Res 2018;12: JC01-8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2018/35622.11969. [Last accessed on 2019 Jul 12].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Jagzape A, Jagzape T, Pathak S. Medical Education Terminologies: Do These Really Percolate to the Level of Medical Students? A Survey. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 2017;11:JC01-5. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/26582.10631. [Last accessed on 2019 Jul 12].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Khandelwal V, Khandelwal S, Gupta N, Nayak UA, Kulshreshtha N, Baliga S. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Its Control Practices among Dental Students in an Indian City. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2018;30:1-6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2016-0103. [Last accessed on 2019 Jul 12].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Khatib M, Sinha A, Gaidhane A, Simkhada P, Behere P, Saxena D, et al. A Systematic Review on Effect of Electronic Media among Children and Adolescents on Substance Abuse. Indian J Community Med 2018;43:S66-72. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_116_18. [Last accessed on 2019 Jul 12].  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Rathi A, Ransing RS, Mishra KK, Narula N. Quality of Sleep among Medical Students: Relationship with Personality Traits. J Clin Diagn Res 2018;12:VC01-4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2018/24685.12025. [Last accessed on 2019 Jul 12].  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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