|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 247-249
Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding risk factors and lifestyle modifications in people with coronary artery disease in a rural area of Western Maharashtra
Urmila Jain, Varoon Jaiswal, Sneha Ghuman, Snehal Ghodey
Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Physiotherapy, M.A.E.E.R.S Physiotherapy College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||06-Apr-2019|
|Date of Decision||02-May-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||25-Jun-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||2-May-2020|
Dr. Urmila Jain
194, Shriramkrupa, Opposite Balaji Mandir, Yashwant Nagar, Shivaji Chowk, Talegaon Dabhade, Pune - 410 507, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aims: This study was done to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding risk factors and lifestyle modifications among people with coronary artery disease using a self-validated questionnaire.
Design: It was a cross-sectional study. The sampling type was simple random sampling. A sample size of 82 was obtained. Methods: A self-validated questionnaire was used to conduct the survey. Informed consent was obtained from participants before filling of the questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Frequency and percentages were calculated. Results: Only a few respondents had knowledge regarding exercising in exercise class/gym and that walking and gardening cannot be considered as exercises. A similar trend was seen for practice where few percent of the participants exercised for more than 20 min 3 days/week and under the supervision of a physiotherapist. An overall fair attitude was seen toward lifestyle modifications among the respondents. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that the lack of knowledge regarding certain factors also influenced the attitude and practice toward it. Furthermore, despite having knowledge regarding certain factors, people showed less willingness to make lifestyle changes which also affected their practices. Hence, it is necessary to study KAP of the population to educate people better and aid the planning of health promotion activities.
Keywords: Attitude, coronary artery disease, knowledge, lifestyle modifications, practice
|How to cite this article:|
Jain U, Jaiswal V, Ghuman S, Ghodey S. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding risk factors and lifestyle modifications in people with coronary artery disease in a rural area of Western Maharashtra. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2019;14:247-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Jain U, Jaiswal V, Ghuman S, Ghodey S. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding risk factors and lifestyle modifications in people with coronary artery disease in a rural area of Western Maharashtra. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jun 4];14:247-9. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2019/14/3/247/283596
| Introduction|| |
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is usually due to atherosclerosis which may lead to angina or heart attack. With around 17.5 million deaths recorded globally, more than 75% of these deaths have occurred in developing countries such as India.
Risk factors leading to CAD are dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, unhealthy eating patterns, smoking, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity. The American Heart Association emphasized the importance of lifestyle modifications and the development of strategies that help to modify health behaviors in CAD.
Inadequate knowledge regarding the disease will affect attitude toward disease, assent with medical advice, and practice necessary for the prevention and treatment of CAD.
| Methods|| |
It was a cross-sectional survey, with simple random sampling done and a sample size of 82. Ethical consent was obtained before conducting the study. Participants diagnosed with CAD and who knew to read and write English were only selected. Informed consent was given to each participant before filling of the questionnaire.
The questionnaire comprised three sections: knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP), respectively. The sections had 9, 11, and 11 questions, respectively, with yes/no options for response.
Statistics were computed by frequency and percentages for each question separately.
| Results|| |
The study was conducted in a sample of 82 participants in view of finding KAP regarding risk factors and lifestyle modifications in people with CAD.
About 91.2% of them considered walking and gardening as exercises to lower the risk of CAD which is not true. Exercising at a gym or exercise class is important to lower the risk of CAD.
The results of willingness for making dietary changes and cessation of alcohol and smoking are 46% and 42.5%, respectively, which are not satisfactory.
It is seen that only 22.5% of them exercise >20 min 3 days/week and just 15% of them exercise under the supervision of a physiotherapist, which shows a lack of practice of exercising despite being willing to do so.
| Discussion|| |
The present study was conducted to assess the KAP regarding risk factors and lifestyle modifications in people with CAD using a self-validated questionnaire.
The findings in the knowledge section showed that more than half of the respondents could answer the general questions regarding CAD correctly. Ninety percent of them knew that high cholesterol was a risk factor for CAD. Knowledge regarding risk factors such as tobacco chewing/smoking, alcohol intake, hypertension, and diabetes was 88.75%, 81.25%, 86.25% respectively. A lack of knowledge was seen for the risk factors age and family history, which was 57.5% and 50%, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the participants knew that physical activity helps lower the risk of CAD, but only 8.75% knew that gardening and light walking cannot be considered as exercises to prevent CAD. A study conducted in Malaysia also showed a lack of knowledge regarding light walking to be not considered as an exercise. Only 57.75% of them knew that the risk of CAD could be lowered by exercising at a gym or exercise class. At the same time, only 50% had the knowledge of exercise centers nearby their locality. This could be due to the lack of knowledge regarding exercising in a gym/exercise center.
Overall, a positive attitude was seen in participants to make lifestyle changes to prevent CAD. Respondents showed relatively fair knowledge of high cholesterol being a risk factor for CAD, but only 30% of them thought that it was necessary to be aware about their lipid levels. A similar pattern of results was seen for making dietary changes. Although more than half of the participants knew that unhealthy eating patterns were a risk factor for CAD, only 46% of the participants were willing to make dietary changes. Furthermore, it was seen that 31.25% of them were not willing to exercise under the supervision of a physiotherapist. This could be due to the lack of knowledge regarding exercising in a gym or exercise class. The attitude to quit smoking and alcohol was seen to be low. Only 42.5% of the respondents were willing to quit smoking and alcohol despite having the knowledge that alcohol and smoking were potential risk factors for CAD [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3].
|Table 2: The attitude regarding the risk factors and lifestyle modifications in people with coronary artery disease|
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|Table 3: The practice regarding the risk factors and lifestyle modifications in people with coronary artery disease|
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The overall results for practice of lifestyle changes of modifiable risk factors were seen to be the lowest as compared to the results of knowledge and attitude regarding CAD. About 93.75% of them answered that they follow the treatment prescribed by their doctors. It was only 35% of them who actually made dietary changes, such as 72.5% of them still continued to eat fatty/junk food for more than 3 days/week. Around 80% of them quit alcohol and smoking. When it comes to exercising, the results were low as seen for knowledge and attitude. It was only 22.5% of the participants who exercised for more than 20 min 3 days/week and 15% of the participants who exercised under the supervision of a physiotherapist. In the studies done by Ansa et al. and Menotti, it was inferred that lifestyle modification strategies are still not widely accepted despite having knowledge regarding certain risk factors.
Education for cardiovascular risk factors and prevention is a very important element of the strategies toward improving cardiovascular health in the community. Patient education can help people with chronic disease to better self-manage their disease. We can conduct certain campaigns, workshops, presentations to aid the awareness regarding risk factors for CAD, and promotion for lifestyle modification.
Physiotherapists join cardiologists and surgeons, nurses, and other members of the multidisciplinary team in order to promote patients’ health and help them return to their activities of daily life. Physiotherapists play an important role in cardiac rehabilitation. The first two phases are the inpatient phase. Phase 3 is the outpatient phase. Before Phase 3, the physiotherapist undertakes risk stratification assessment according to ASCM guidelines, in which the patient is categorized into high-, low-, or moderate-risk categories, respectively. A supervised exercise session is offered at least two times per week, in addition to one session per week of education.. Hence, it is of utmost importance for the participants to have knowledge regarding exercising under the supervision of a physiotherapist and also be willingness to do so.
A few limitations to the study were that it was confined only to people who could read and write English. All answers were self-reported. The participants for the present study have been delimited to 82 participants with CAD. The measures for amount of alcohol and number of cigarettes were subjective, i.e., self-reported.
| Conclusion|| |
Conclusions from multiple-choice responses can result in better knowledge. In the future, the study can be carried out in various regional languages with a larger sample size.,,
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]