|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 158-159
Massive intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage following ventriculoperitoneal shunt
V Anil Kumar1, Yashawant Sandeep2, Amit Agrawal2
1 Department of Anesthesia, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||17-Jan-2019|
Dr. Amit Agrawal
Department of Neurosurgery, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore - 524 003, Andhra Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Post-ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement intracerebral hemorrhage is a rare complication and carries a high mortality. In the present article, we describe a case of a 22-year-old male who underwent VP shunt placement and developed massive intracerebral hemorrhage with intraventricular extension and review the relevant literature to understand the underlying causative pathophysiology.
Keywords: Hydrocephalus, intracerebral hemorrhage, shunt complication, ventriculoperitoneal shunt
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar V A, Sandeep Y, Agrawal A. Massive intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage following ventriculoperitoneal shunt. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2018;13:158-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar V A, Sandeep Y, Agrawal A. Massive intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage following ventriculoperitoneal shunt. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 Dec 9];13:158-9. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2018/13/3/158/250103
| Introduction|| |
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a relatively safe, commonly performed neurosurgical procedure for the management of hydrocephalus due to various etiologies., However, this relatively simple procedure can be associated with many complications.,,,, In rare circumstances, VP shunt placement can be associated with life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhage along the stunt tract.,,,,,,,, In the present article, we describe a case of VP shunt where the patient developed massive intracerebral hemorrhage with intraventricular extension and review the relevant literature to understand the underlying causative pathophysiology.
| Case Report|| |
A 22-year-old male patient who sustained traumatic brain injury 3 months back was diagnosed to have traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage due to traumatic intracranial aneurysm which was clipped. Following surgery, he was granularly making a good recovery. Now, he presented with headache, vomiting, and swaying while walking. There was no history of fever or seizures. On examination, he was conscious, had slurring of speech, and was obeying commands. His general and systemic examination was normal. Cranial nerve examination was normal, except fundus which showed bilateral papilledema. His blood investigations including platelets and coagulation profile were normal. Computed tomography (CT) scan brain plain showed significant dilatation lateral, third, and fourth ventricles, suggestive of hydrocephalus. The patient underwent right VP shunt. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was under high pressure and clear. He recovered well after surgery. CSF examination was normal. On the 3rd day after surgery, the patient had multiple episodes of generalized tonic–clonic seizures and lapsed into altered sensorium. He had difficulty in breathing and was immediately intubated and electively ventilated. A repeat CT scan showed massive intracerebral hemorrhage along the shunt tube tract with intraventricular extension [Figure 1]a, [Figure 1]b, [Figure 1]c, [Figure 1]d. An external ventricular was placed and blood-stained CSF was drained. Repeat blood investigation showed platelet count of 257,000/mm3. Prothrombin time was 24.1 s (control – 13.6 s), INR was 1.83 (normal – <2.0), and APTT was 62.9 s (control – 28.8 s). There was evidence of bleeding from anywhere. The patient did not recover and was expired 4th day postsurgery.
|Figure 1: Postoperative computed tomography scan brain plain performed on day 3 postsurgery showing massive bleeding along the shunt tube tract with intraventricular extension and thin subdural collection over the right frontoparietal region|
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| Discussion|| |
Post-VP shunt intracerebral hemorrhage is a rare complication, and the incidence ranges from 0.3% to 4% in published literature.,,,,, However, it is difficult to estimate the true incidence of post-VP shunt intracerebral hemorrhage as in most the patients, the lesions are very small. In the majority of the patients, the post-VP shunt intracerebral hemorrhage occurs soon after the shunt placement and most of the hemorrhages are located along the shunt catheter tract, and the hemorrhages may or may not extend into the ventricular system., The exact mechanism responsible for post-VP shunt intracerebral hemorrhage is not known, and various explanations have been proposed. The possible mechanisms include preexistent coagulation disorder, disseminated intravascular coagulation, anticoagulant treatment, direct injury to the cerebral vessels during catheter insertion, erosion of the vessels by the shunt catheter, fragile brain tissue due to cerebral edema, atherosclerosis, moyamoya disease, vascular malformations, injury to the choroid plexus, and traumatic brain injury.,,,,,,,,, It has been suggested that injury the brain choroid plexus can result in release of tissue thromboplastin which can induce disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemorrhages in previously fragile brain (due to trauma as in present case).
| Conclusion|| |
Post-VP shunt placement intracerebral hemorrhage is a rare complication and carries a high mortality., The management of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage after VP shunt placement depends on the size of the lesions. Smaller lesion does not need surgical intervention; however, the large, life-threatening lesions will require surgical intervention.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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