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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 143-149

Physical growth pattern among adolescents from Satara District: Using sitting height, leg length, and other anthropometric measurements


1 Department of Community Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication17-Jan-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Supriya Satish Patil
Department of Community Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad - 415 110, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_56_18

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  Abstract 


Background: Adolescent is a transitional phase between childhood and adulthood. Apart from height and weight other anthropometric measurements such as sitting height and leg length are also useful in assessment of physical growth pattern. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of this study is to develop mean and standard deviation (SD) for sitting height, leg length, biacromial diameter, bicristal diameter etc., and to compare them with the national Indian council of medical research standard and other study reference values. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional school-based study was carried out in Satara district. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20 for windows. Results: During 10–15 years of age, sitting height increased by 12.10 and 8.44 cm for boys and girls, respectively. The peak sitting height velocity was observed at 13–14 years in boys and 12–13 years in girls. During 10–15 years of age leg length was increased by 14.86 and 10.58 cm for boys and girls, respectively. Thus, both boys and girls have more increase in leg length as compared to sitting height. There is proportionately more increase in shoulder width than the hip width in case of boys whereas girls showed a more increase in hip width. Conclusions: As there are very less studies regarding other anthropometric measurements such as sitting height, leg length, and biacromial diameter it is necessary to carry out regional and national studies to develop standard/reference values for these anthropometric measurements.

Keywords: Biacromial, leg length, physical growth, sitting height


How to cite this article:
Patil SS, Patil SR, Durgawale PM. Physical growth pattern among adolescents from Satara District: Using sitting height, leg length, and other anthropometric measurements. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ 2018;13:143-9

How to cite this URL:
Patil SS, Patil SR, Durgawale PM. Physical growth pattern among adolescents from Satara District: Using sitting height, leg length, and other anthropometric measurements. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Jun 26];13:143-9. Available from: http://www.journaldmims.com/text.asp?2018/13/3/143/250106




  Introduction Top


India is home to 358 million young people in the age group of 10–24 years of these, 243 million are in the age group of 10–19 years, accounting for 21.2% of the country's population.[1] The adolescent is a transitional phase between childhood and adulthood, characterized by some cognitive, emotional, physical, intellectual and attitudinal changes as well as by changes in social roles, relationships, and expectations. Simple measurements of height and weight serve as reliable means to evaluate the growth of a child and also to detect gross abnormalities even when no other clinical sign of illness is manifested.[2] Apart from height and weight other anthropometric measurements such as sitting height, leg length, biacromial diameter, and bicristal diameter are also useful in the assessment of physical growth pattern. In the diagnostic workup of children with exceptionally tall or short stature, visual inspection, and objective measurement body proportion can give important clues.[3],[4],[5] Sitting height can also be used as a proxy of statural growth if height cannot be measured, for example, because of lower limb deformities.[6] Nonavailability of an anthropometric profile other than height, weight for adolescents of Satara district prompted us to undertake this study. The present study was carried out to develop mean and standard deviation (SD) for sitting height, leg length, biacromial diameter, bicristal diameter etc., and to compare them with the national Indian council of medical research (ICMR) standard and other study reference values to understand physical growth pattern.


  Materials and Methods Top


The study was carried out in the Satara district which is situated in the west part in Maharashtra state. Adolescents were classified into eleven half yearly groups (10,10.5,......................15 years). Children's height is a sensitive indicator of their physical well-being and has been recommended as a measure of their nutritional state. As body height can be assumed to be normally distributed, for each half year, the sample size was calculated on the basis of mean and SD of height from various studies. These minimum sample sizes were computed with 95% confidence level and allowable error of 1.5% of the respective mean height. Total sample size calculated was 575 for boys and 446 for girls. A total of 2025 adolescents (1222 boys and 803 girls) from 8 tahsils were included in the study. As per the guidelines given by the International Union of Nutrition Sciences, English Medium schools were selected based on that they catered to the elite population.[7]

An updated list of all English medium schools (5th–10th standard) obtained from Zilla Parishad, Satara was used as the sampling frame. From each tahsil, one school was selected by random sampling technique using lottery method and entire adolescents in the age group of 10–15 years of selected schools were included in the study. Children suffering from any major systemic diseases or with major surgical operation likely to affect their growth and with limb deformities were excluded from the study. The purpose and the process of the study were explained to the school authorities and teachers. Informed consent was obtained. Data were collected in pretested pro forma from February 2009 to March 2011. For all study participants, same measuring equipment were used, which were calibrated daily for standardization to reduce bias/error. Sitting height, leg length, biacromial diameter, bicristal diameter, and head and chest circumference were recorded using the methods described in anthropometric standardization reference manual.[8] The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra.

Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Version 20 purchased from (Benguluru, Karnataka, India) for windows. To test the significance of the difference, unpaired t-test was used.


  Results Top


Adolescents are the individuals aged 10–19 years. However, the present study covered the adolescents in 10–15 years of age group. A total of 2025 adolescents from Satara district constituted study sample. Out of 2025 study participants, 1222 (60.3%) were boys and 803 (39.7%) were girls. Maximum individuals were present in the 12 years of age group (12.8%) followed by (11.9%) in 10 years of age group. Maximum girls (4.9%) were present in 12 years of age group followed by (4.7%) in 13 years age group and (1.6%) girls were present in 15 years age group. Thus, significantly higher numbers of boys than girls were included in the study. (χ2 = 20.229; df = 10; P < 0.05). Age- and sex-wise distribution of studied population is shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Age- and sex-wise distribution of studied population

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Sitting height and leg length

Sitting height and leg length means and SD for boys and girls are given in [Table 2]. During 10–15 years of age, sitting height increased by 12.10 and 8.44 cm for boys and girls, respectively. The peak sitting height velocity was observed at 13–14 years in boys and 12–13 years in girls. The mean sitting height was higher for girls till the age of 13.5 years (the maximum difference was 1.62 cm at 13 years) except at 10.5 years and 14 years onward it was higher in boys (maximum difference 2.70 cm at 15 years). At 15 years, difference of mean for sitting height was statistically significant (t = 2.240, df = 80, P < 0.05).
Table 2: Anthropometric profile of study population - Sitting height and leg length (cm)

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During 10–15 years of age, leg length was increased by 14.86 and 10.58 cm for boys and girls, respectively. Thus, both boys and girls have more increase in leg length as compared to sitting height; the difference was about 2.76 cm in boys and 2.14 cm in girls. Mean leg length values for girls were higher than that of boys up to 12.5 years and from 12.5 years onward values were higher in boys than that of girls (maximum difference 5.48 cm at 14 years). The difference of mean leg length at 15 years was statistically significant (t = 4.49, df = 80, P < 0.05).

Biacromial and bicristal diameters

Biacromial and bicristal diameter mean and SD for boys and girls are given in [Table 3]. Biacromial diameter means were almost similar for boys and girls till 14 years except at 11.5 years where girls had more biacromial diameter than boys by 2.17 cm. At 15 years, boys had more biacromial diameter than girls by 2.97 cm. The difference was statistically significant (t = 3.460, df = 80, P < 0.05).
Table 3: Anthropometric profile of study population - Biacromial and bicristal diameter (cm)

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The boy's biacromial diameter increased from 30.33 cm to 37.80 cm, whereas bicristal diameter increased from 24.64 cm to 32.04 cm during 10–15 years. During same period, the girls biacromial diameter increased from 30.40 cm to 34.83 cm, whereas bicristal diameter increased from 25.68 cm to 30.22 cm. Thus, there is proportionately more increase in shoulder width than the hip width in case of boys, whereas girls showed a more increase in hip width.

Up to 13 years, the mean value of bicristal diameter was either almost similar to or more than boys in case of girls. Maximum difference was at 11.5 years (2.09 cm). From 13.5 years onward, mean value of bicristal diameter was more in boys than that of girls; the maximum difference was at the age of 15 years (1.82 cm). The difference was not statistically significant.

Head circumference

Head circumference means and SD for boy and girls are given in [Table 4]. The mean value of head circumference for boys and girls during 10–15 years shows that the gain was 2.16 cm and 1.39 cm for boys and girls, respectively. Mean value at 15 years for boys was higher than that of girls by 0.89 cm and the difference was statistically significant (t = 2.411, df = 80, P < 0.05).
Table 4: Anthropometric profile of study population - Head circumference (cm)

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Chest circumference

Chest circumference means and SD for boy and girls are given in [Table 5].
Table 5: Anthropometric profile of study population - Chest circumference (cm)

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Mean value of chest circumference was increased from 63.76 to 76.73 cm during 10–15 years in boys, i.e., 12.97 cm gain and in girls during the same period the gain was 7.87 cm. Up to 13 years age girls overtook the boys. Difference was statistically not significant till 13 years age. At 15 years, boys had more mean value than girls the difference was 4.03 cm and that was statistically significant (t = 1.930, df = 80, P < 0.05).


  Discussion Top


A total of 2025 adolescents from Satara district constituted study sample. Out of 2025 study participants, 1222 (60.3%) were boys and 803 (39.7%) were girls. In the present study, maximum individuals were present in the 12 years age group (12.8%) and maximum girls (4.9%) were present in the 12 years age group. In ICMR study also up to the age of 12 years, relatively higher proportion of girls was examined. However for older ages, situation was reversed[9] [Table 1].

Sitting height and leg length

In the present study, during 10–15 years of age sitting height increased by 12.10 and 8.44 cm for boys and girls, respectively. When compared to ICMR,[9] (upper class) standards and nationwide study[10] carried out in 1989 sitting height values were higher for all age groups and among both sexes. Mean sitting height values among boys and girls in the present study were lower than that of Taipai, Taiwan study at all ages and both sexes. At 15 years, the present study values were less by 8.63 cm and 4.98 cm. In the present study, peak sitting height velocity was observed at 12–13 years in girls and 13–14 years in boys. In Taipai, Taiwan study peak sitting height velocity occurred at a mean age of 12.5 years for boys and 11.5 years for girls.[11] [Table 2] and [Figure 1], [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Comparison of sitting height in boys

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Figure 2: Comparison of sitting height in girls

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In the present study, during 10–15 years of age, leg length was increased by 14.86 and 10.58 cm for boys and girls, respectively. Thus, both boys and girls have more increase in leg length as compared to sitting height. The leg length data for ICMR study was not available. The mean leg length of the present study was comparable to mean values of Agarwal et al.[10] study for both sexes. Mean leg length at 15 years among boys was more by 1.18 cm and among girls it was more by 1.91 cm [Table 2]. In Taiwan study, mean values of leg length for both boys and girls were lower than the present study values; but average height is more than our study because mean sitting height was more.[11] It appears that leg length of Indian children is almost equal to those of European; perhaps, the difference in stature is due to difference in trunk growth, being more in European children.[10]

In short children; most chondrodystrophic syndromes are characterized by short limbs. It is generally known that tall children have relatively long legs and vice versa.[12],[13]

Eveleth and Tanner[14] have pointed out that height increase in Japanese has been entirely due to increase in leg length and as a result body shape in them altered and similar results have been reported for Chinese[15] but opposite, i.e., more growth in trunk was observed for Philadelphia and Afro–Americans.[16] Various studies have shown that the positive secular change is mainly due to increase in leg length rather than in trunk length.[3],[12],[17],[18],[19],[20] Sitting height and leg length values in the Netherlands are higher than Denmark, the UK and Sweden, illustrating that the Dutch population is tallest in world.[21]

Eveleth and Tanner[22] reported that differences in body proportions are genetically controlled and different for European, African, and oriental populations. With better environmental circumstances relatively longer legs appear in all ethnic groups. In fact, monitoring leg length might even be a better tool for reflection of environmental improvements than height.

Biacromial and bicristal diameter

Similar to the present study biacromial diameter means were similar for boys and girls until the 14 years age. There was proportionately more increase in shoulder width than the hip width in boys and proportionately more increase in hip width than shoulder width in girls[10] [Table 3].

Biacromial diameter means were more in the present study than Agarwal et al. study[10] and a study carried out by ICMR in 1996 for all ages (10–15 years) and both sexes.[23] At 15 years, difference was 3.10 cm and 1.20 cm in boys and girls, respectively, for Agarwal et al.[10] study and 2.90 and 0.73 cm in boys and girls, respectively, for ICMR study. Mean values of Norway[24] (National study) and Hungary[25] were comparable with the present study [Figure 3] and [Figure 4].
Figure 3: Comparison of biacromial diameter boys

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Figure 4: Comparison of biacromial diameter girls

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Bicristal diameter means were more in the present study than Agarwal et al. study and a study carried out by ICMR in 1996 for all ages (10–15 years) and both sexes. At 15 years, difference was 7.09 and 3.62 cm in boys and girls, respectively, for Agarwal et al.'s study and 7.64 and 4.92 cm difference in boys and girls, respectively, for ICMR study. Mean values of Hungary study was less than the present study mean values in both sexes at all ages (10–15 years) [Figure 5] and [Figure 6].
Figure 5: Comparison of bicristal diameter boys

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Figure 6: Comparison of bicristal diameter girls

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Head circumference

Mean values for the present study were comparable with a nationwide study[10] and ICMR standard[9] and a study carried out by Rath et al. in Delhi.[26] [Table 6].
Table 6: Comparison of the head circumference of the present study and other studies

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Chest circumference

Mean values of chest circumference in the present study were more than that of Agarwal et al. study[10] values and ICMR[9],[23] study values for all ages and among both sexes. At 15 years, the present study mean value was more by 4.03 and 3.33 cm in boys and girls, respectively [Table 7].
Table 7: Comparison of chest circumference of present study and other studies

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Studies have reported that there is secular trend in height and weight of the Indian children which can be attributed to the increased nutritional status and standard of living.[27],[28] As there are very less studies regarding other anthropometric measurements such as sitting height, leg length, and biacromial diameter it is necessary to carry out regional and national studies to develop standard/reference values for these anthropometric measurements.


  Conclusion Top


As there ae very less studies regarding other anthropometric measurements such as sittingheight, leg length, and biacromial diameter it is necessary to carry out regional and national studies to develop standard/reference values for these anthropometric measurements.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Lee TS, Chao T, Tang RB, Hsieh CC, Chen SJ, Ho LT, et al. A longitudinal study of growth patterns in schoolchildren in one Taipei district. II: Sitting height, arm span, body mass index and skinfold thickness. J Chin Med Assoc 2005;68:16-20.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Brinkers JM, Lamoré PJ, Gevers EF, Boersma B, Wit JM. The effect of oestrogen treatment on body proportions in constitutionally tall girls. Eur J Pediatr 1994;153:237-40.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Tanner JM. Principles of growth standards. Acta Paediatr Scand 1990;79:963-7.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
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26.
Rath B, Ghosh S, Mohan M, Ramanujacharyulu TK. Anthropometric indices of children (5-15 years) of a privileged community. Indian Pediatr 1978;15:653-65.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
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Patil SS, Patil SR, Durgawale PM, Kakade SV, Abhishek K. Study of physical growth standards of adolescents (10-15yrs) from Karad, Maharashtra. Int J Collab Res Intern Med Public Health 2013;5:10-8.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
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Patil SS, Patil SR, Durgawale PM, Kakade SV. Study of physical growth standards of adolescents in age group of 10-15 years from Satara district of Maharashtra India. J Krishna Inst Med Sci Univ 2015;4:42-56.  Back to cited text no. 28
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

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